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Open AccessArticle

The Upwelling Water Flux Feeding Springs: Hydrogeological and Hydraulic Features

Department of Science and Technology, University of Sannio, 82100 Benevento, Italy
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Water 2018, 10(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040501
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
The upwelling groundwater flux has been investigated by deep piezometers in a spring area characterized by alluvial deposits covering a karst substratum in Southern Italy. The piezometers are of varying depth located in a flat area. They have been monitored for a long period (about 40 years), and when measured, a good relationship between spring discharge and hydraulic head was observed. The local upwelling groundwater flux has been deducted by the increasing of the hydraulic head in depth, which allows the estimation of ascendant hydraulic gradient and groundwater velocity during the dry and wet seasons. A specific analytical solution has been used to estimate the zone involved by the ascendant flow, and could also be used in other spring areas. Some physical and chemical characteristics of spring water have been collected, including the radon (222Rn) activity, to support the phenomenon of the ascendant flux. The man geological and hydrogeological features leading to ascendant flux in karst environments is also discussed for some areas of Southern Italy, where many springs are affected. View Full-Text
Keywords: upwelling flux; hydraulic head; ascendant hydraulic gradient; spring; Southern Italy upwelling flux; hydraulic head; ascendant hydraulic gradient; spring; Southern Italy
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Fiorillo, F.; Esposito, L.; Testa, G.; Ciarcia, S.; Pagnozzi, M. The Upwelling Water Flux Feeding Springs: Hydrogeological and Hydraulic Features. Water 2018, 10, 501.

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