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Water 2018, 10(2), 134;

Evaluating the Water Quality Benefits of a Bioswale in Brunswick County, North Carolina (NC), USA

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC 27610, USA
AECOM, Morrisville, NC 27560, USA
Department of Coastal and Marine Systems Science, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC 29528, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Standard roadside vegetated swales often do not provide consistent pollutant removal. To increase infiltration and pollutant removal, bioswales are designed with an underlying soil media and an underdrain. However, there are little data on the ability of these stormwater control measures (SCMs) to reduce pollutant concentrations. A bioswale treating road runoff was monitored, with volume-proportional, composite stormwater runoff samples taken for the inlet, overflow, and underdrain outflow. Samples were tested for total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile suspended solids (VSS), enterococcus, E. coli, and turbidity. Underdrain flow was significantly cleaner than untreated road runoff for all monitored pollutants. As expected, the water quality of overflow was not significantly improved, since little to no interaction with soils occurred for this portion of the water balance. However, overflow bacteria concentrations were similar to those from the underdrain perhaps due to a first flush of bacteria which was treated by the soil media. For all sampling locations, enterococci concentrations were always higher than the USEPA geometric mean recommendation of 35 Most Probable Number (MPN)/100 mL, but there were events where the fecal coliform concentrations was below the USEPA’s 200 MPN/100 mL limit. A reduction in TSS concentration was seen for both overflow and underdrain flow, and only the underdrain effluent concentrations were below the North Carolina’s high quality water limit of 20 mg/L. Comparing results herein to standard swales, the bioswale has the potential to provide greater treatment and become a popular tool. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteria; bioinfiltration; infiltration; pathogens; runoff; sediment; urbanization bacteria; bioinfiltration; infiltration; pathogens; runoff; sediment; urbanization

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Purvis, R.A.; Winston, R.J.; Hunt, W.F.; Lipscomb, B.; Narayanaswamy, K.; McDaniel, A.; Lauffer, M.S.; Libes, S. Evaluating the Water Quality Benefits of a Bioswale in Brunswick County, North Carolina (NC), USA. Water 2018, 10, 134.

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