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Open AccessArticle

Evapotranspiration of the Brazilian Pampa Biome: Seasonality and Influential Factors

1
Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria 97105-900 RS, Brazil
2
Centro de Investigação em Agronomia, Alimentos, Ambiente e Paisagem (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria 97105-900 RS, Brazil
4
Laboratório de Computação Aplicada, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos 12227-010 SP, Brazil
5
Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alertas de Desastres Naturais, São José dos Campos 12227-010 SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121864
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food)
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Abstract

Experimentally characterizing evapotranspiration (ET) in different biomes around the world is an issue of interest for different areas of science. ET in natural areas of the Brazilian Pampa biome has still not been assessed. In this study, the actual ET (ETact) obtained from eddy covariance measurements over two sites of the Pampa biome was analyzed. The objective was to evaluate the energy partition and seasonal variability of the actual ET of the Pampa biome. Results showed that the latent heat flux was the dominant component in available energy in both the autumn–winter (AW) and spring–summer (SS) periods. Evapotranspiration of the Pampa biome showed strong seasonality, with highest ET rates in the SS period. During the study period, approximately 65% of the net radiation was used for the evapotranspiration process in the Pampa biome. The annual mean ET rate was 2.45 mm d−1. ET did not show to vary significantly between sites, with daily values very similar in both sites. The water availability in the Pampa biome was not a limiting factor for ET, which resulted in a small difference between the reference ET and the actual ET. These results are helpful in achieving a better understanding of the temporal pattern of ET in relation to the landscape of the Pampa biome and its meteorological, soil, and vegetation characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: actual evapotranspiration; Pampa biome; eddy covariance; evaporative fraction; hysteresis loops actual evapotranspiration; Pampa biome; eddy covariance; evaporative fraction; hysteresis loops
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Rubert, G.C.; Roberti, D.R.; Pereira, L.S.; Quadros, F.L.F.; Campos Velho, H.F.; Leal de Moraes, O.L. Evapotranspiration of the Brazilian Pampa Biome: Seasonality and Influential Factors. Water 2018, 10, 1864.

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