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Open AccessArticle

Potential of Rainwater Utilization in Households Based on the Distributions of Catchment Area and End-Use Water Demand

1
Department of Human Centered Engineering, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
2
Faculty of Core Research, Natural Science Division, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan
3
Graduate School of Social Sciences, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo 186-8601, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(12), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121706
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
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PDF [4402 KB, uploaded 22 November 2018]
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Abstract

In the area where household water use exceeds the capacity of the public water supply, rainwater is considered as one of the alternative water resources. Many researchers studied rainwater potential to cover the specific value of water demand in households having the average catchment area, so that the estimated potential expresses that of the average population. In this research, the possibility of rainwater use for toilets was investigated more realistically using the probability distributions of water demand and catchment area, and precipitation in case of Hanoi, Vietnam. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted throughout this simulation and the distribution of the possibility of rainwater use was estimated. The effect of household size and seasonal variations on the potential of rainwater utilization was also assessed. These results showed that our new approach exhibited that approximately 60% of the households failed to achieve the potential that was estimated using the conventional approach. Therefore, our new approach should be useful to understand the manner in which the potential of rainwater utilization differs in a given area, and it could be applied to other areas for consideration on the rainwater use potential and the suitable tank size when the distributions of variables and precipitation are clear. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainwater utilization; end use water demand; Monte Carlo simulation rainwater utilization; end use water demand; Monte Carlo simulation
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Takagi, K.; Otaki, M.; Otaki, Y. Potential of Rainwater Utilization in Households Based on the Distributions of Catchment Area and End-Use Water Demand. Water 2018, 10, 1706.

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