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Open AccessReview

A Comprehensive Review of Low Impact Development Models for Research, Conceptual, Preliminary and Detailed Design Applications

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
2
Geomatics Engineering, Department of Earth & Space Science & Engineering, Lassonde School of Engineering, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(11), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111541
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Sensitive Urban Design)
This review compares and evaluates eleven Low Impact Development (LID) models on the basis of: (i) general model features including the model application, the temporal resolution, the spatial data visualization, the method of placing LID within catchments; (ii) hydrological modelling aspects including: the type of inbuilt LIDs, water balance model, runoff generation and infiltration; and (iii) hydraulic modelling methods with a focus on the flow routing method. Results show that despite the recent updates of existing LID models, several important features are still missing and need improvement. These features include the ability to model: multi-layer subsurface media, tree canopy and processes associated with vegetation, different spatial scales, snowmelt and runoff calculations. This review provides in-depth insight into existing LID models from a hydrological and hydraulic point of view, which will facilitate in selecting the best-suited model. Recommendations on further studies and LID model development are also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: low impact development; sustainable urban drainage systems; stormwater modelling; numerical modelling; water resources; stormwater collection networks; green infrastructure low impact development; sustainable urban drainage systems; stormwater modelling; numerical modelling; water resources; stormwater collection networks; green infrastructure
MDPI and ACS Style

Kaykhosravi, S.; Khan, U.T.; Jadidi, A. A Comprehensive Review of Low Impact Development Models for Research, Conceptual, Preliminary and Detailed Design Applications. Water 2018, 10, 1541. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111541

AMA Style

Kaykhosravi S, Khan UT, Jadidi A. A Comprehensive Review of Low Impact Development Models for Research, Conceptual, Preliminary and Detailed Design Applications. Water. 2018; 10(11):1541. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111541

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kaykhosravi, Sahereh; Khan, Usman T.; Jadidi, Amaneh. 2018. "A Comprehensive Review of Low Impact Development Models for Research, Conceptual, Preliminary and Detailed Design Applications" Water 10, no. 11: 1541. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111541

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