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Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090352

Effects of El-Niño, Indian Ocean Dipole, and Madden-Julian Oscillation on Surface Air Temperature and Rainfall Anomalies over Southeast Asia in 2015

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor, Malaysia
2
School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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Abstract

The Maritime Continent (MC) is positioned between the Asian and Australian summer monsoons zone. The complex topography and shallow seas around it are major challenges for the climate researchers to model and understand it. It is also the centre of the tropical warm pool of Southeast Asia (SEA) and therefore the MC gets extra attention of the researchers. The monsoon in this area is affected by inter-scale ocean-atmospheric interactions such as the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Monsoon rainfall in the MC (especially in Indonesia and Malaysia) profoundly exhibits its variability dependence on ocean-atmospheric phenomena in this region. This monsoon shift often introduces to dreadful events like biomass burning (BB) in Southeast Asia (SEA) in which some led to severe trans-boundary haze pollution events in the past. In this study, the BB episode of 2015 in the MC is highlighted and discussed. Observational satellite datasets are tested by performing simulations with the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model WRF-ARW (Weather Research and Forecast—Advanced research WRF). Observed and model datasets are compared to study the surface air temperature and precipitation (rainfall) anomalies influenced by ENSO, IOD, and MJO. Links amongst these influences have been recognised and the delayed precipitation of the regular monsoon in the MC due to their influence during the 2015 BB episode is explained and accounted for, which eventually led to the intensification of fire and a severe haze. View Full-Text
Keywords: monsoon; maritime continent; ocean-atmospheric phenomena; Southeast Asia; biomass burning; sea surface temperature; rainfall monsoon; maritime continent; ocean-atmospheric phenomena; Southeast Asia; biomass burning; sea surface temperature; rainfall
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Islam, M.A.; Chan, A.; Ashfold, M.J.; Ooi, C.G.; Azari, M. Effects of El-Niño, Indian Ocean Dipole, and Madden-Julian Oscillation on Surface Air Temperature and Rainfall Anomalies over Southeast Asia in 2015. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 352.

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