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Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 350;

Abrupt Climate Shift in the Mature Rainy Season of the Philippines in the Mid-1990s

Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-Shi, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan
Department of Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Processes Research, Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan
Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, Quezon City 1100, Philippines
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monsoons)
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A robust climate shift around 1993/1994 from early August to early September, which corresponds to the mature rainy season of the Philippines, was identified in stations located over the western coast of the country. The convection in the mature rainy season during 1994–2008 (E2) was suppressed compared with 1979–1993 (E1). The possible role of the changes in the large-scale conditions and tropical cyclone (TC) activity were analyzed. The results show that the western North Pacific Subtropical High has extended further westward in E2 leading to an enhanced lower-level divergence and less moisture transport over the Philippines. The changes in the large-scale conditions, which featured a mid-tropospheric descent, a decrease in low-level relative humidity, an enhanced vertical zonal wind shear, and a decrease in the perturbation kinetic energy, also inhibited the synoptic-scale disturbances in the vicinity of the Philippines. In particular, fewer TCs developed and made landfall over the Philippines in E2. We also found inconsistent climate shifts in May, June, July, and September between the rainfall data from the stations and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation, which highlights the importance of sub-seasonal analysis in decadal-to-interdecadal climate change studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate shift; interdecadal change; Philippines; tropical cyclones; rainy season climate shift; interdecadal change; Philippines; tropical cyclones; rainy season

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Olaguera, L.M.; Matsumoto, J.; Kubota, H.; Inoue, T.; Cayanan, E.O.; Hilario, F.D. Abrupt Climate Shift in the Mature Rainy Season of the Philippines in the Mid-1990s. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 350.

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