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Atmosphere 2018, 9(12), 477;

Observed Trends and Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extreme Indices over Myanmar

The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), 126 Pracha Uthit Rd., Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Center of Excellence for Energy Technology and Environment, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Ministry of Transport and Communications, Nay Pyi Taw 15011, Myanmar
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 29 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Projected increase in frequency and severity of extreme events are important threat brought by climate change. Thus, there is a need to understand the dynamics and magnitude of climate extreme at local and regional level. This study examines the patterns of annual trends and changes of extreme daily temperature and precipitation in Myanmar for the period of 1981 to 2015 using the RClimDex 1.1 software. The trends of maximum and minimum temperature show significant warming trends (p < 0.001) across Myanmar. From 2009 to 2015, the maximum temperature anomaly has continuously increased by 0.5 °C for all years except 2011. The larger rise in both maximum and minimum temperature observed after 2000 suggests that, overall, days and nights are becoming hotter for the entirety of Myanmar over this recent period. Furthermore, our works also show that the temperature extreme indices of warm days and warm nights have increased, whereas the frequency of cool days and cool nights have decreased. Our analysis also reveals that increasing trends in precipitation anomaly were not significant during 1981–2015. On the contrary, slight increasing trends towards wetter conditions were observed with a rate of 76.52 mm/decade during the study period. The other precipitation extreme indicators—namely, annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), heavy precipitation days (R20mm), extreme wet days precipitation (R99p), and consecutive wet days (CWD)—are consistent with warming trends. Additionally, the relationship between inter-annual variability in the climate extremes indices and Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) patterns was also examined with a focus on the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme indices; Myanmar; precipitation; RClimDex; temperature; trend extreme indices; Myanmar; precipitation; RClimDex; temperature; trend

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Sein, K.K.; Chidthaisong, A.; Oo, K.L. Observed Trends and Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extreme Indices over Myanmar. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 477.

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