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Atmosphere 2018, 9(10), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9100399

Local Convection and Turbulence in the Amazonia Using Large Eddy Simulation Model

1
National Institute for Space Researcb (INPE), São José dos Campos 12227-010, State of São Paulo, Brazil
2
Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA/IAE), São José dos Campos 12228904, State of São Paulo, Brazil
3
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover, Germany
Current Address: Engineering and Geosciences Institute, Federal University ofWest of Para (UFOPA), Santarém 68040-255, State of Pará, Brazil.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows)
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Abstract

Using a high resolution model of Large Eddies Simulation (LES), named PALM from PArallel LES Model, a set of simulations were performed to understand how turbulence and convection behave in a pasture and forest sites in Amazonia during the dry and rainy seasons. Related to seasonality, dry period presented higher differences of values (40 W m−2) and patterns over the sites, while in the wet period have more similar characteristics (difference of −10 W m−2). The pasture site had more convection than the forest, with effective mixing and a deeper boundary layer (2600 m). The vertical decrease of sensible heat flux with altitude fed convection and also influenced the convective boundary layer (CBL) height. Regarding the components of turbulent kinetic energy equation, the thermal production was the most important component and the dissipation rate responded with higher growth, especially in cases of greatest mechanical production at the forest surface reaching values up to −20.0. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy partition; turbulent kinetic energy; pasture site; LES model energy partition; turbulent kinetic energy; pasture site; LES model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Neves, T.; Fisch, G.; Raasch, S. Local Convection and Turbulence in the Amazonia Using Large Eddy Simulation Model. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 399.

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