Next Article in Journal
Urban Roughness Estimation Based on Digital Building Models for Urban Wind and Thermal Condition Estimation—Application of the SkyHelios Model
Previous Article in Journal
Utilization of Global Precipitation Datasets in Data Limited Regions: A Case Study of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania
Open AccessArticle

Modeling the Stepping Process of Negative Lightning Stepped Leaders

Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2017, 8(12), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8120245
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
A physical model based on the mechanism observed in experimental investigations is introduced to describe the formation of negative leader steps. Starting with a small length of a space leader located at the periphery of the negative streamer system of the stepped leader, the model simulates the growth and the subsequent formation of the leader step. Based on the model, the step length, the step forming time, and the propagation speed of stepped leaders as a function of the prospective return stroke peak current are estimated. The results show that the step length and the leader speed increase with increasing prospective return stroke current. The results also show that the speed of the stepped leader increases as it approaches the ground. For prospective return stroke currents in the range of 15 kA–60 kA, the step lengths lie within the range 5 m–100 m, the step forming times lie within the range 10 μs–250 μs, and the leader speed lies within the range 105 m/s −1.5 × 106 m/s. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations. View Full-Text
Keywords: lightning; stepped leader; space leader; space stem lightning; stepped leader; space leader; space stem
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cooray, V.; Arevalo, L. Modeling the Stepping Process of Negative Lightning Stepped Leaders. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 245.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop