Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Freezing Drizzle, Sleet and Snow on Microphysical Characteristics of Supercooled Fog during the Icing Process in a Mountainous Area
Previous Article in Journal
Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion
Open AccessArticle

Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Rural Nursery Schools in Southern Poland

Department of Air Protection, Silesian University of Technology, 22B Konarskiego St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 142;
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
This study aimed to characterize airborne bacteria and fungi populations present in rural nursery schools in the Upper Silesia region of Poland during winter and spring seasons through quantification and identification procedures. Bacterial and fungal concentration levels and size distributions were obtained by the use of a six-stage Andersen cascade impactor. Results showed a wide range of indoor bioaerosols levels. The maximum level of viable bacterial aerosols indoors was about 2600 CFU·m−3, two to three times higher than the outdoor level. Fungi levels were lower, from 82 to 1549 CFU·m−3, with indoor concentrations comparable to or lower than outdoor concentrations. The most prevalent bacteria found indoors were Gram-positive cocci (>65%). Using the obtained data, the nursery school exposure dose (NSED) of bioaerosols was estimated for both the children and personnel of nursery schools. The highest dose for younger children was estimated to range: 327–706 CFU·kg−1 for bacterial aerosols and 31–225 CFU·kg−1 for fungal aerosols. These results suggest an elevated risk of adverse health effects on younger children. These findings may contribute to the promotion and implementation of preventative public health programs and the formulation of recommendations aimed at providing healthier school environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioaerosol; size distribution; bacteria; fungi; preschool; health risk bioaerosol; size distribution; bacteria; fungi; preschool; health risk
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Brągoszewska, E.; Mainka, A.; Pastuszka, J.S. Bacterial and Fungal Aerosols in Rural Nursery Schools in Southern Poland. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 142.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop