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Cluster Analysis of the Wind Events and Seasonal Wind Circulation Patterns in the Mexico City Region

Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas, División de Energías Alternas, Reforma 113, Palmira, Cuernavaca 62490, Mexico
Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Robert Talbot
Atmosphere 2015, 6(8), 1006-1031;
Received: 8 May 2015 / Revised: 12 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
PDF [3324 KB, uploaded 24 July 2015]


The residents of Mexico City face serious problems of air pollution. Identifying the most representative scenarios for the transport and dispersion of air pollutants requires the knowledge of the main wind circulation patterns. In this paper, a simple method to recognize and characterize the wind circulation patterns in a given region is proposed and applied to the Mexico City winds (2001–2006). This method uses a lattice wind approach to model the local wind events at the meso-β scale, and hierarchical cluster analysis to recognize their agglomerations in their phase space. Data of the meteorological network of Mexico City was used as input for the lattice wind model. The Ward’s clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance was applied to organize the model wind events in seasonal clusters for each year of the period. Comparison of the hourly population trends of these clusters permitted the recognition and detailed description of seven circulation patterns. These patterns resemble the qualitative descriptions of the Mexico City wind circulation modes reported by other authors. Our method, however, permitted also their quantitative characterization in terms of the wind attributes of velocity, divergence and vorticity, and an estimation of their seasonal and annual occurrence probabilities, which never before were quantified. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban winds; wind patterns; lattice wind models; cluster analysis urban winds; wind patterns; lattice wind models; cluster analysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Carreón-Sierra, S.; Salcido, A.; Castro, T.; Celada-Murillo, A.-T. Cluster Analysis of the Wind Events and Seasonal Wind Circulation Patterns in the Mexico City Region. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1006-1031.

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