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Article

Spatial Evolution of Energetic Electrons Affecting the Upper Atmosphere during the Last Two Solar Cycles

1
Department of Space Sciences and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan City 32001, Taiwan
2
Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3
Semenov Federal Research Center for Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia
4
National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Victor Ivanovich Zakharov
Atmosphere 2022, 13(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020322
Received: 29 December 2021 / Revised: 12 February 2022 / Accepted: 13 February 2022 / Published: 15 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Atmosphere Science)
Future commercial, scientific, and other satellite missions require low-Earth-orbit (LEO) altitudes of 300400 km for long-term successful space operations. The Earth’s radiation belt (ERB) is an inevitable obstacle for manned and other space missions. Precipitation of >30 keV energetic electrons from the ERB is one of the sources of ionization in LEO, space vehicles, in the ionosphere, and in the upper atmosphere. We show, in this work, that the area of electron precipitation from the outer ERB shifts equator-wards to Siberia. We further show a substantive decrease in the intensity of energetic electrons in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) from the 23rd to the 24th solar cycles. These results can be attributed to, and explained by, variations in geomagnetic activity, with a noticeable change in the configuration of the Earth’s magnetic field during the 24th solar cycle. The diminishing SAA area and electron fluxes should allow elevation of the International Space Station to higher altitudes, thereby making these altitudes accessible to relevant space missions. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionosphere; Earth’s radiation belt; solar cycle ionosphere; Earth’s radiation belt; solar cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dmitriev, A.V.; Suvorova, A.V.; Ghosh, S.; Golubkov, G.V.; Golubkov, M.G. Spatial Evolution of Energetic Electrons Affecting the Upper Atmosphere during the Last Two Solar Cycles. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 322. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020322

AMA Style

Dmitriev AV, Suvorova AV, Ghosh S, Golubkov GV, Golubkov MG. Spatial Evolution of Energetic Electrons Affecting the Upper Atmosphere during the Last Two Solar Cycles. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(2):322. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020322

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dmitriev, Alexei V., Alla V. Suvorova, Sayantan Ghosh, Gennady V. Golubkov, and Maxim G. Golubkov. 2022. "Spatial Evolution of Energetic Electrons Affecting the Upper Atmosphere during the Last Two Solar Cycles" Atmosphere 13, no. 2: 322. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020322

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