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Article

Mitigation of Odor and Gaseous Emissions from Swine Barn with UV-A and UV-C Photocatalysis

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Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
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Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin Piringer
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050585
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 28 April 2021 / Published: 1 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Livestock Odor Issues and Air Quality)
UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. ‘black light’) photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of particulate matter (PM) and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2–0.8 m3·s−1 of barn exhaust air. The targeted gaseous emissions of barn exhaust air were significantly mitigated (p < 0.05) up to 40% reduction of measured odor; 63%, 44%, 32%, 40%, 66% and 49% reduction of dimethyl disulfide, isobutyric acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, indole and skatole, respectively; 40% reduction of H2S; 100% reduction of O3; and 13% reduction of N2O. The PM mitigation effect was not significant. Formaldehyde levels did not change, and a 21% generation of CO2 was observed. The percent reduction of targeted gases decreased as the airborne PM increased. Simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis confirmed that UV-A treatment changed the overall nuisance odor character of swine barn emissions into weaker manure odor with ‘toothpaste and ‘mint’ notes. The smell of benzoic acid generated in UV-A treatment was likely one of the compounds responsible for the less-offensive overall odor character of the UV-treated emissions. Results are needed to inform the design of a farm-scale trial, where the interior barn walls can be treated with the photocatalyst. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; nuisance smell; livestock agriculture; waste management; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; excimer; titanium dioxide air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; nuisance smell; livestock agriculture; waste management; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; excimer; titanium dioxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, M.; Koziel, J.A.; Murphy, W.; Jenks, W.S.; Chen, B.; Li, P.; Banik, C. Mitigation of Odor and Gaseous Emissions from Swine Barn with UV-A and UV-C Photocatalysis. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 585. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050585

AMA Style

Lee M, Koziel JA, Murphy W, Jenks WS, Chen B, Li P, Banik C. Mitigation of Odor and Gaseous Emissions from Swine Barn with UV-A and UV-C Photocatalysis. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(5):585. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Myeongseong, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, and Chumki Banik. 2021. "Mitigation of Odor and Gaseous Emissions from Swine Barn with UV-A and UV-C Photocatalysis" Atmosphere 12, no. 5: 585. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050585

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