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Article

Mechanisms for Severe Drought Occurrence in the Balsas River Basin (Mexico)

1
Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
2
Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
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Environmental Physics Laboratory (EPhysLab), CIM–UVigo, Universidade de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
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Departamento de Sistemas Físicos, Químicos y Naturales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
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Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander V. Chernokulsky
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030368
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Central America and Caribbean Hydrometeorology and Hydroclimate)
This work provides an assessment of the two most intense seasonal droughts that occurred over the Balsas River Basin (BRB) in the period 1980–2017. The detection of the drought events was performed using the 6 month scale standardized precipitation–evapotranspiration index (SPEI-6) and the 6 month standardized precipitation index (SPI-6) in October. Both indices were quite similar during the studied period, highlighting the larger contribution of precipitation deficits vs. temperature excess to the drought occurrence in the basin. The origin of the atmospheric water arriving to the BRB (1 May 1980–31 October 2017) was investigated by using a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The BRB receives moisture from the Caribbean Sea and the rest of the tropical Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the eastern north Pacific and from three terrestrial evaporative sources: the region north of BRB, the south of BRB and the BRB itself. The terrestrial evaporative source of the BRB itself is by far the main moisture source. The two most intense drought events that occurred in the studied period were selected for further analysis. During the severe drought of 2005, the summertime sea surface temperature (SST) soared over the Caribbean Sea, extending eastward into a large swathe of tropical North Atlantic, which was accompanied by the record to date of hurricane activity. This heating generated a Rossby wave response with westward propagating anticyclonic/cyclonic gyres in the upper/lower troposphere. A cyclonic low-level circulation developed over the Gulf of Mexico and prevented the moisture from arriving to the BRB, with a consequent deficit in precipitation. Additionally, subsidence also prevented convection in most of the months of this drought period. During the extreme drought event of 1982, the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) remained southern and stronger than the climatological mean over the eastern tropical Pacific, producing an intense regional Hadley circulation. The descent branch of this cell inhibited the development of convection over the BRB, although the moisture sources increased their contributions; however, these were bounded to the lower levels by a strong trade wind inversion. View Full-Text
Keywords: drought; SPEI; SPI; moisture transport; FLEXPART; trade wind inversion drought; SPEI; SPI; moisture transport; FLEXPART; trade wind inversion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Melgarejo, A.E.; Ordoñez, P.; Nieto, R.; Peña-Ortiz, C.; García-Herrera, R.; Gimeno, L. Mechanisms for Severe Drought Occurrence in the Balsas River Basin (Mexico). Atmosphere 2021, 12, 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030368

AMA Style

Melgarejo AE, Ordoñez P, Nieto R, Peña-Ortiz C, García-Herrera R, Gimeno L. Mechanisms for Severe Drought Occurrence in the Balsas River Basin (Mexico). Atmosphere. 2021; 12(3):368. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melgarejo, Ana E., Paulina Ordoñez, Raquel Nieto, Cristina Peña-Ortiz, Ricardo García-Herrera, and Luis Gimeno. 2021. "Mechanisms for Severe Drought Occurrence in the Balsas River Basin (Mexico)" Atmosphere 12, no. 3: 368. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030368

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