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Article

The Micrometeorology of the Haifa Bay Area and Mount Carmel during the Summer

1
Department of Applied Mathematics, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness-Ziona 7410001, Israel
2
Department of Soil and Water Sciences, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Leuchner
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030354
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 21 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 8 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Human Exposures in Israel)
The Haifa bay area (HBA), which includes Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley is the third largest metropolitan area in Israel. It is also a centre of heavy industry and an important transportation hub which serve as sources of local anthropogenic pollution. Such sources are associated with adverse health effects. In order to estimate the possible exposure of the inhabitants in such heterogeneous orographic area, a detailed atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling study is required, which in turn must take into account the local micrometeorology. The aim of this study is to conduct a spatio-temporal analysis of the flow field in the HBA in order to identify the common patterns of the average wind and characterize the statistical parameters of turbulence in this area, essential for detailed pollutants dispersion modelling. This study analyses data collected during four months of summer in a network of 16 weather stations which extend across Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley. It was found that, during the evening and night time on Mount Carmel, different flow patterns may develop on each side, separated by the watershed line. When such conditions do not develop, as well as during the daytime, the wind field, both on Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley is approximately homogenous. The analysis of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory functions for the velocity standard deviations show a distinct difference between Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley, as well as between strong and weak winds. This difference can be clearly seen also in the diurnal hourly distribution of atmospheric stabilities which exhibit higher proportions of unstable conditions in the Zevulun valley during day time and higher proportion of stable stratifications at the Mount Carmel during night-time. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer; complex terrain; micrometeorology; heterogeneous orography; marine urban area; turbulent parametrization; low winds; Monin–Obukhov similarity theory; complex terrain wind field interpolation scheme atmospheric boundary layer; complex terrain; micrometeorology; heterogeneous orography; marine urban area; turbulent parametrization; low winds; Monin–Obukhov similarity theory; complex terrain wind field interpolation scheme
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klausner, Z.; Ben-Efraim, M.; Arav, Y.; Tas, E.; Fattal, E. The Micrometeorology of the Haifa Bay Area and Mount Carmel during the Summer. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 354. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030354

AMA Style

Klausner Z, Ben-Efraim M, Arav Y, Tas E, Fattal E. The Micrometeorology of the Haifa Bay Area and Mount Carmel during the Summer. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(3):354. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030354

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klausner, Ziv, Mattya Ben-Efraim, Yehuda Arav, Eran Tas, and Eyal Fattal. 2021. "The Micrometeorology of the Haifa Bay Area and Mount Carmel during the Summer" Atmosphere 12, no. 3: 354. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030354

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