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Article

Tephra4D: A Python-Based Model for High-Resolution Tephra Transport and Deposition Simulations—Applications at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

1
Sakurajima Volcano Research Center, DPRI, Kyoto University, Kagoshima 841-1419, Japan
2
Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
3
Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Young Sunwoo
Atmosphere 2021, 12(3), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030331
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 1 March 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
Vulcanian eruptions (short-lived explosions consisting of a rising thermal) occur daily in volcanoes around the world. Such small-scale eruptions represent a challenge in numerical modeling due to local-scale effects, such as the volcano’s topography impact on atmospheric circulation and near-vent plume dynamics, that need to be accounted for. In an effort to improve the applicability of Tephra2, a commonly-used advection-diffusion model, in the case of vulcanian eruptions, a number of key modifications were carried out: (i) the ability to solve the equations over bending plume, (ii) temporally-evolving three-dimensional meteorological fields, (iii) the replacement of the particle diameter distribution with observed particle terminal velocity distribution which provides a simple way to account for the settling velocity variation due to particle shape and density. We verified the advantage of our modified model (Tephra4D) in the tephra dispersion from vulcanian eruptions by comparing the calculations and disdrometer observations of tephra sedimentation from four eruptions at Sakurajima volcano, Japan. The simulations of the eruptions show that Tephra4D is useful for eruptions in which small-scale movement contributes significantly to ash transport mainly due to the consideration for orographic winds in advection. View Full-Text
Keywords: tephra; advection-diffusion model; disdrometer; Sakurajima; Tephra2; Tephra4D; Parsivel; WRF tephra; advection-diffusion model; disdrometer; Sakurajima; Tephra2; Tephra4D; Parsivel; WRF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Takishita, K.; Poulidis, A.P.; Iguchi, M. Tephra4D: A Python-Based Model for High-Resolution Tephra Transport and Deposition Simulations—Applications at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 331. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030331

AMA Style

Takishita K, Poulidis AP, Iguchi M. Tephra4D: A Python-Based Model for High-Resolution Tephra Transport and Deposition Simulations—Applications at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(3):331. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030331

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takishita, Kosei, Alexandros P. Poulidis, and Masato Iguchi. 2021. "Tephra4D: A Python-Based Model for High-Resolution Tephra Transport and Deposition Simulations—Applications at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan" Atmosphere 12, no. 3: 331. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12030331

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