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Bulk Deposition and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Agricultural Areas of Rural Beijing during 2016–2020

by 1,2,*, 1,2, 3, 1,2, 1, 1,4, 5 and 6
1
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
The Analysis and Test Center, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
4
Beijing Center for Physical & Chemical Analysis, Beijing 100089, China
5
Key Laboratory of Cloud-Precipitation Physics and Severe Storms, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
6
National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of MOE, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pascal Flament
Atmosphere 2021, 12(2), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020283
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 22 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
While atmospheric deposition plays a vital role in cleaning air pollutants, it also supplies toxic heavy metals and metalloids (MMs) to the receiving terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and threatens human health through food chains. To characterize the input of atmospheric deposition to agricultural soils, bulk rain samples were collected on an event basis at a rural site in the North China Plain during 2016–2020. The results show that higher concentrations of MMs in bulk rain samples were associated with western and southern air masses passing polluted areas. In addition, the annual deposition flux of MMs tends to decline during the study period, coinciding with the inter-annual variations of particulate matter rather than the precipitation amounts. Of note, the deposition flux of MMs that exist entirely in fine particles declined significantly compared to those that exist in coarse particulate form, indicating that the clean air actions implemented in recent years were highly effective in reducing ambient MMs from anthropogenic emissions. The positive matrix factorization receptor model was also applied to the whole data set for bulk depositions and five sources were identified as agricultural (biomass burning and soil), dust, coal combustion, industrial and traffic emissions. These factors contributed 41%, 24%, 21%, 9% and 5% of the chemical components in bulk depositions, respectively. Future control strategies should tighten the emissions from combustion and soil/dust in the North China Plain to protect agriculture from atmospheric MMs depositions. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric deposition; heavy metal; bulk rain sampling; wet deposition; dry deposition; bulk deposition; precipitation chemistry; agricultural soil pollution; North China Plain atmospheric deposition; heavy metal; bulk rain sampling; wet deposition; dry deposition; bulk deposition; precipitation chemistry; agricultural soil pollution; North China Plain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, Y.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Cao, J.; Hu, J.; Tian, S.; Li, X.; Xu, W. Bulk Deposition and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Agricultural Areas of Rural Beijing during 2016–2020. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020283

AMA Style

Pan Y, Liu J, Zhang L, Cao J, Hu J, Tian S, Li X, Xu W. Bulk Deposition and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Agricultural Areas of Rural Beijing during 2016–2020. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(2):283. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pan, Yuepeng, Jin Liu, Lan Zhang, Jing Cao, Jiabao Hu, Shili Tian, Xingyu Li, and Wen Xu. 2021. "Bulk Deposition and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Agricultural Areas of Rural Beijing during 2016–2020" Atmosphere 12, no. 2: 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020283

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