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Article

Evaluating the Urban Canopy Scheme TERRA_URB in the COSMO Model for Selected European Cities

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Department of Meteorology, Climate and Air Quality, Arpa Piemonte, 10139 Turin, Italy
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CIMA Foundation, 17100 Savona, Italy
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CIRA- Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali, 81043 Capua, Italy
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Regional Models and Geo-Hydrological Impacts (REMHI) Division, Fondazione Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, 81100 Caserta, Italy
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Research Computing Center and Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
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Hydrometeorologycal Research Centre of Russian Federation, 123376 Moscow, Russia
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A.M. Obukhov Institute for Atmospheric Physics, 119017 Moscow, Russia
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Smart Urban Nature Laboratory, RUDN University, 117198 Moscow, Russia
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Environmental Modelling Unit, Flemish Institute for Technological Research, B-2400 Mol, Belgium
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Hydro-Climate Extremes Lab, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Deutsche Wetterdienst (German Meteorological Service), 63067 Offenbach am Main, Germany
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Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
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Department of Geography, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Matthew Eastin
Atmosphere 2021, 12(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020237
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 4 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
The increase in built surfaces constitutes the main reason for the formation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI), that is a metropolitan area significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The urban heat islands and other urban-induced climate feedbacks may amplify heat stress and urban flooding under climate change and therefore to predict them correctly has become essential. Currently in the COSMO model, cities are represented by natural land surfaces with an increased surface roughness length and a reduced vegetation cover, but this approach is unable to correctly reproduce the UHI effect. By increasing the model resolution, a representation of the main physical processes that characterize the urban local meteorology should be addressed, in order to better forecast temperature, moisture and precipitation in urban environments. Within the COSMO Consortium a bulk parameterization scheme (TERRA_URB or TU) has been developed. It parametrizes the effects of buildings, streets and other man-made impervious surfaces on energy, moist and momentum exchanges between the surface and atmosphere, and additionally accounts for the anthropogenic heat flux as a heat source from the surface to the atmosphere. TU implements an impervious water-storage parameterization, and the Semi-empirical Urban canopy parametrization (SURY) that translates 3D urban canopy into bulk parameters. This paper presents evaluation results of the TU scheme in high-resolution simulations with a recent COSMO model version for selected European cities, namely Turin, Naples and Moscow. The key conclusion of the work is that the TU scheme in the COSMO model reasonably reproduces UHI effect and improves air temperature forecasts for all the investigated urban areas, despite each city has very different morphological characteristics. Our results highlight potential benefits of a new turbulence scheme and the representation of skin-layer temperature (for vegetation) in the model performance. Our model framework provides perspectives for enhancing urban climate modelling, although further investigations in improving model parametrizations, calibration and the use of more realistic urban canopy parameters are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban climate; urban heat island; UHI; COSMO; TERRA_URB; urban parametrization; numerical weather; prediction; climate modelling urban climate; urban heat island; UHI; COSMO; TERRA_URB; urban parametrization; numerical weather; prediction; climate modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Garbero, V.; Milelli, M.; Bucchignani, E.; Mercogliano, P.; Varentsov, M.; Rozinkina, I.; Rivin, G.; Blinov, D.; Wouters, H.; Schulz, J.-P.; Schättler, U.; Bassani, F.; Demuzere, M.; Repola, F. Evaluating the Urban Canopy Scheme TERRA_URB in the COSMO Model for Selected European Cities. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020237

AMA Style

Garbero V, Milelli M, Bucchignani E, Mercogliano P, Varentsov M, Rozinkina I, Rivin G, Blinov D, Wouters H, Schulz J-P, Schättler U, Bassani F, Demuzere M, Repola F. Evaluating the Urban Canopy Scheme TERRA_URB in the COSMO Model for Selected European Cities. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(2):237. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020237

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garbero, Valeria, Massimo Milelli, Edoardo Bucchignani, Paola Mercogliano, Mikhail Varentsov, Inna Rozinkina, Gdaliy Rivin, Denis Blinov, Hendrik Wouters, Jan-Peter Schulz, Ulrich Schättler, Francesca Bassani, Matthias Demuzere, and Francesco Repola. 2021. "Evaluating the Urban Canopy Scheme TERRA_URB in the COSMO Model for Selected European Cities" Atmosphere 12, no. 2: 237. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020237

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