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Article

Dry and Wet Climate Periods over Eastern South America: Identification and Characterization through the SPEI Index

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Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09913-030, Brazil
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Instituto Dom Luiz, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Campo Grande, Portugal
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Environmental Physics Laboratory (EPhysLab), CIM-Uvigo, Universidade de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
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Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, IAG, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony R. Lupo
Atmosphere 2021, 12(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020155
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 21 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
A large part of the population and the economic activities of South America are located in eastern regions of the continent, where extreme climate events are a recurrent phenomenon. This study identifies and characterizes the dry and wet climate periods at domain-scale occurring over the eastern South America (ESA) during 1980–2018 through the multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation–Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). For this study, the spatial extent of ESA was defined according to a Lagrangian approach for moisture analysis. It consists of the major continental sink of the moisture transported from the South Atlantic Ocean throughout the year, comprising the Amazonia, central Brazil, and the southeastern continental areas. The SPEI for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of accumulation was calculated using monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration time series averaged on ESA. The analysis of the climate periods followed two different approaches: classification of the monthly SPEI values as mild, moderate, severe, and extreme; the computation of the events and their respective parameters (duration, severity, intensity, and peak). The results indicate that wet periods prevailed in the 1990s and 2000s, while dry conditions predominated in the 2010s, when the longest and more severe dry events have been identified at the four scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: SPEI; eastern South America; extreme climate conditions; drought; wet episodes SPEI; eastern South America; extreme climate conditions; drought; wet episodes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Drumond, A.; Stojanovic, M.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Liberato, M.L.R.; Pauliquevis, T.; Oliveira, M.; Ambrizzi, T. Dry and Wet Climate Periods over Eastern South America: Identification and Characterization through the SPEI Index. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020155

AMA Style

Drumond A, Stojanovic M, Nieto R, Gimeno L, Liberato MLR, Pauliquevis T, Oliveira M, Ambrizzi T. Dry and Wet Climate Periods over Eastern South America: Identification and Characterization through the SPEI Index. Atmosphere. 2021; 12(2):155. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Drumond, Anita, Milica Stojanovic, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, Margarida L.R. Liberato, Theotonio Pauliquevis, Marina Oliveira, and Tercio Ambrizzi. 2021. "Dry and Wet Climate Periods over Eastern South America: Identification and Characterization through the SPEI Index" Atmosphere 12, no. 2: 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12020155

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