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Article

Source–Receptor Relationships and Cluster Analysis of CO2, CH4, and CO Concentrations in West Africa: The Case of Lamto in Côte d’Ivoire

1
Laboratory of Atmosphere Physic and Mechanic Fluids (LAPA-MF), University Felix Houphouet-Boigny, UFR SSMT, Abidjan 22 BP 582, Ivory Coast
2
Geophysical Station of Lamto (GSL), N’Douci BP 31, Ivory Coast
3
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), IPSL, CEA-CNRS UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4
Institut Méditerranéen de Biodiversité et d’Ecologie Marine et Continentale (IMBE), Aix Marseille University, Avignon Université, CNRS, IRD, 13000 Marseille, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090903
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 26 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Trace Gas Source Detection and Quantification)
The contribution in terms of long-range transport of CO2, CH4, and CO concentrations to measurements at Lamto (5°02′ W–6°13′ N) was analyzed for the 2014–2017 period using the FLEXPART model that calculates the retro-plumes of air masses arriving at the station. The identification of the source-receptor relationships was also studied with a clustering technique applied on those retro-plumes. This clustering technique enabled us to distinguish four categories of air mass transports arriving at Lamto site described as follows: oceanic and maritime origin (≈37% of the retro-plumes), continental origin (≈21%), and two hybrid clusters (≈42%). The results show that continental emission sources contribute significantly to the increases in concentrations of CO2, CH4, and CO and explain ≈40% of their variance. These emission sources are predominantly from north and north-east directions of the measurement point, and where densely populated and economically developed areas are located. In addition, the transport of air masses from these directions lead to the accumulation of CO2, CH4, and CO. Furthermore, the ratios ΔCO/ΔCH4 and ΔCO/ΔCO2 observed in the groups associated with Harmattan flows clearly show an influence of combustion processes on the continent. Thus, the grouping based on FLEXPART footprints shows an advantage compared to the use of simple trajectories for analyzing source–receptor relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lamto; West Africa; cluster analysis; long-range transport; source–receptor relationships; CO; CH4; CO2 Lamto; West Africa; cluster analysis; long-range transport; source–receptor relationships; CO; CH4; CO2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tiemoko, D.T.; Yoroba, F.; Paris, J.-D.; Diawara, A.; Berchet, A.; Pison, I.; Riandet, A.; Ramonet, M. Source–Receptor Relationships and Cluster Analysis of CO2, CH4, and CO Concentrations in West Africa: The Case of Lamto in Côte d’Ivoire. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090903

AMA Style

Tiemoko DT, Yoroba F, Paris J-D, Diawara A, Berchet A, Pison I, Riandet A, Ramonet M. Source–Receptor Relationships and Cluster Analysis of CO2, CH4, and CO Concentrations in West Africa: The Case of Lamto in Côte d’Ivoire. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(9):903. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090903

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tiemoko, Dro T., Fidèle Yoroba, Jean-Daniel Paris, Adama Diawara, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Aurélie Riandet, and Michel Ramonet. 2020. "Source–Receptor Relationships and Cluster Analysis of CO2, CH4, and CO Concentrations in West Africa: The Case of Lamto in Côte d’Ivoire" Atmosphere 11, no. 9: 903. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090903

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