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Relationship of Weather Types on the Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Rainfall, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in the Western Mediterranean Basin

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Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, IPE-CSIC, 22700 Zaragoza, Spain
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Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Soil and water conservation research group, CEBAS-CSIC, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Department of Environmental Quality and Soils, Desertification Research Centre-CIDE (CSIC, UV, GV), Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain
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National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water, and Forestry (INRGREF), Carthage University, Carthage 1054, Tunisia
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Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), 17300 Blanes, Girona, Spain
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Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (IMAMOTER), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), 10135 Torino, Italy
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Departamento Investigación Aplicada y Extensión Agraria, Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA), 28800 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Engineering, ISFOOD Institute, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
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Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, School of Agriculture, Castelo Branco, Portugal, Research Center GEOBIOTEC, UBI, 6201 Covilhã, Portugal
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Department of Agronomy (Soil Science Area), University of Almeria. Engineering High School, 04120 Almeria, Spain
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Centro de Investigación de Colecciones Científicas de la Universidad de Almería (CECOUAL), University of Almería, 04120 Almeria, Spain
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Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Fall Creek Farm & Nursery, Tala 45300, Mexico
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Department of Earth Sciences, Centro Nacional de Supercomputación, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Unidad de Ecología, Universidad de Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain
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Department of Geography, Institute of Agroenvironmental and Water Economy Research -INAGEA, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Spain
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Environmental Mediterranean Research Group (GRAM), Departament of Geography, University of Barcelona, 08007 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Physics, IMARENAB, University of Leon, 24071 Leon, Spain
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Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Agrarian School of Coimbra, 1349 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Earth and Marine Science, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
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Surface Hydrology and Erosion group, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
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Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC), 14004 Córdoba, Spain
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INTERRA Research Institute, University of Extremadura, 06006 Cáceres, Spain
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Department of Environment and Planning, Earth Surface Processes Team (ESP) Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810 Aveiro, Portugal
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Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 3800 Athens, Greece
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School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 70013 Chania, Greece
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Team Soil Water and Land Use, Wageningen Environmental Research, Wageningen UR, 6708 Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia
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University of Grenoble, INRAE, UR ETNA, 38000 Grenoble, France
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Area of Geography, DCH, University of La Rioja, 26006 Logroño, Spain
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Experimental Station of Arid Zones, EEZA-CSIC, 04120 Almería, Spain
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LISAH, University Montpellier, INRAE, IRD, Institut Agro, 34 090 Montpellier, France
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Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
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Fluvial Dynamics Research Group—RIUS, University of Lleida, 25003 Lleida, Spain
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Institute for Environmental Science and Geography, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam, Germany
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Center for Applied Geosciences, Faculty of Science, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
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Departamento de Ingeniería Rural, University of Cordoba—ETSIAM Campus Rabanales, Leonardo Da Vinci Building, 14014 Córdoba, Spain
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Departamento de Geología y Geoquímica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Instituto Hispano Luso de Investigaciones Agrarias, University of Salamanca, 37008 Villamayor, Spain
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University of Montpellier, AMAP, INRAE, CIRAD, CNRS, IRD, PS2 TA/A51, 34 398, Montpellier CEDEX 5, France
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CEFE, University Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, University Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, 34 398, Montpellier, France
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Department of Ecology, Desertification Research Centre-CIDE (CSIC, UV, GV), Moncada, 46113 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Department of Agriculture, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
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History, Art and Geography Department, GEAAT Group, University of Vigo, Campus as Lagoas, 36310 Ourense, Spain
48
Physical Geography, Trier University, 54296 Trier, Germany
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Departamento de Geografía, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de La Merced, 30100 Murcia, Spain
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Department of Geography, University of Málaga, 29016 Málaga, Spain
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Faculty of Sciences, Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (CICA), University of A Coruna, 15001 A Coruña, Spain
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ETSIIAA, Area of Soil Science and Soil Chemistry, University of Valladolid, 47002 Palencia, Spain
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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Research Unit, Department of Agriculture-Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, 06121 Perugia, Italy
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Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel
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Hydro-Environmental Processes Research Group, Science and Technology Faculty, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain
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Geographical Institute, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060609
Received: 8 May 2020 / Revised: 29 May 2020 / Accepted: 31 May 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations. View Full-Text
Keywords: weather types; rainfall; runoff; erosion; sediment yield; seasonal analyses; Mediterranean basin weather types; rainfall; runoff; erosion; sediment yield; seasonal analyses; Mediterranean basin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peña-Angulo, D.; Nadal-Romero, E.; González-Hidalgo, J.C.; Albaladejo, J.; Andreu, V.; Bahri, H.; Bernal, S.; Biddoccu, M.; Bienes, R.; Campo, J.; Campo-Bescós, M.A.; Canatário-Duarte, A.; Cantón, Y.; Casali, J.; Castillo, V.; Cavallo, E.; Cerdà, A.; Cid, P.; Cortesi, N.; Desir, G.; Díaz-Pereira, E.; Espigares, T.; Estrany, J.; Farguell, J.; Fernández-Raga, M.; Ferreira, C.S.; Ferro, V.; Gallart, F.; Giménez, R.; Gimeno, E.; Gómez, J.A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A.; Gómez-Macpherson, H.; González-Pelayo, O.; Kairis, O.; Karatzas, G.P.; Keesstra, S.; Klotz, S.; Kosmas, C.; Lana-Renault, N.; Lasanta, T.; Latron, J.; Lázaro, R.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Le Bouteiller, C.; Licciardello, F.; López-Tarazón, J.A.; Lucía, A.; Marín-Moreno, V.M.; Marín, C.; Marqués, M.J.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Martínez-Mena, M.; Mateos, L.; Mathys, N.; Merino-Martín, L.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Moustakas, N.; Nicolau, J.M.; Pampalone, V.; Raclot, D.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L.; Rodrigo-Comino, J.; Romero-Díaz, A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D.; Rubio, J.L.; Schnabel, S.; Senciales-González, J.M.; Solé-Benet, A.; Taguas, E.V.; Taboada-Castro, M.T.; Taboada-Castro, M.M.; Todisco, F.; Úbeda, X.; Varouchakis, E.A.; Wittenberg, L.; Zabaleta, A.; Zorn, M. Relationship of Weather Types on the Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Rainfall, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060609

AMA Style

Peña-Angulo D, Nadal-Romero E, González-Hidalgo JC, Albaladejo J, Andreu V, Bahri H, Bernal S, Biddoccu M, Bienes R, Campo J, Campo-Bescós MA, Canatário-Duarte A, Cantón Y, Casali J, Castillo V, Cavallo E, Cerdà A, Cid P, Cortesi N, Desir G, Díaz-Pereira E, Espigares T, Estrany J, Farguell J, Fernández-Raga M, Ferreira CS, Ferro V, Gallart F, Giménez R, Gimeno E, Gómez JA, Gómez-Gutiérrez A, Gómez-Macpherson H, González-Pelayo O, Kairis O, Karatzas GP, Keesstra S, Klotz S, Kosmas C, Lana-Renault N, Lasanta T, Latron J, Lázaro R, Le Bissonnais Y, Le Bouteiller C, Licciardello F, López-Tarazón JA, Lucía A, Marín-Moreno VM, Marín C, Marqués MJ, Martínez-Fernández J, Martínez-Mena M, Mateos L, Mathys N, Merino-Martín L, Moreno-de las Heras M, Moustakas N, Nicolau JM, Pampalone V, Raclot D, Rodríguez-Blanco ML, Rodrigo-Comino J, Romero-Díaz A, Ruiz-Sinoga JD, Rubio JL, Schnabel S, Senciales-González JM, Solé-Benet A, Taguas EV, Taboada-Castro MT, Taboada-Castro MM, Todisco F, Úbeda X, Varouchakis EA, Wittenberg L, Zabaleta A, Zorn M. Relationship of Weather Types on the Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Rainfall, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(6):609. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peña-Angulo, D.; Nadal-Romero, E.; González-Hidalgo, J.C.; Albaladejo, J.; Andreu, V.; Bahri, H.; Bernal, S.; Biddoccu, M.; Bienes, R.; Campo, J.; Campo-Bescós, M.A.; Canatário-Duarte, A.; Cantón, Y.; Casali, J.; Castillo, V.; Cavallo, E.; Cerdà, A.; Cid, P.; Cortesi, N.; Desir, G.; Díaz-Pereira, E.; Espigares, T.; Estrany, J.; Farguell, J.; Fernández-Raga, M.; Ferreira, C.S.; Ferro, V.; Gallart, F.; Giménez, R.; Gimeno, E.; Gómez, J.A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A.; Gómez-Macpherson, H.; González-Pelayo, O.; Kairis, O.; Karatzas, G.P.; Keesstra, S.; Klotz, S.; Kosmas, C.; Lana-Renault, N.; Lasanta, T.; Latron, J.; Lázaro, R.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Le Bouteiller, C.; Licciardello, F.; López-Tarazón, J.A.; Lucía, A.; Marín-Moreno, V.M.; Marín, C.; Marqués, M.J.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Martínez-Mena, M.; Mateos, L.; Mathys, N.; Merino-Martín, L.; Moreno-de las Heras, M.; Moustakas, N.; Nicolau, J.M.; Pampalone, V.; Raclot, D.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L.; Rodrigo-Comino, J.; Romero-Díaz, A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D.; Rubio, J.L.; Schnabel, S.; Senciales-González, J.M.; Solé-Benet, A.; Taguas, E.V.; Taboada-Castro, M.T.; Taboada-Castro, M.M.; Todisco, F.; Úbeda, X.; Varouchakis, E.A.; Wittenberg, L.; Zabaleta, A.; Zorn, M. 2020. "Relationship of Weather Types on the Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Rainfall, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in the Western Mediterranean Basin" Atmosphere 11, no. 6: 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060609

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