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Article

Reconstructing Elemental Carbon Long-Term Trend in the Po Valley (Italy) from Fog Water Samples

1
Institute of Polar Sciences, National Research Council, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2
Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, 40129 Bologna, Italy
3
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, 40129 Bologna, Italy
4
Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, 73100 Lecce, Italy
5
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra, Italy
6
Regional Agency for Prevention, Environment and Energy of Emilia-Romagna, 40122 Bologna, Italy
7
Air Pollution Institute, National Research Council at the Ministry of Environment, Land, and Sea, 00147 Rome, Italy
8
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(6), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060580
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 23 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 2 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observation, Simulation and Predictability of Fog )
Elemental carbon (EC), a ubiquitous component of fine atmospheric aerosol derived from incomplete combustion, is an important player for both climate change and air quality deterioration. Several policy measures have been implemented over the last decades to reduce EC emissions from anthropogenic sources, but still, long-term EC measurements to verify the efficacy of such measurements are limited. In this study, we analyze the concentration of EC suspended in fog water samples, collected over the period 1997–2016 in a rural background site of the southern Po Valley. The comparison between EC in fog water and EC atmospheric aerosol concentration measured since 2012 allowed us to reconstruct EC atmospheric concentration from fog water chemical composition dating back to 1997. The results agree with the EC atmospheric observations performed at the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) station of Ispra in the northern part of the Po Valley since 2002, and confirm that the Po Valley is a pollution hotspot, not only in urban areas, but also in rural locations. The reconstructed trend over the period 1997–2016 indicates that EC concentration during the winter season has decreased on average by 4% per year, in agreement with the emission reduction rate, confirming the effectiveness of air quality measures implemented during the past 20 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: elemental carbon; atmospheric aerosol; fog; Po Valley elemental carbon; atmospheric aerosol; fog; Po Valley
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gilardoni, S.; Tarozzi, L.; Sandrini, S.; Ielpo, P.; Contini, D.; Putaud, J.-P.; Cavalli, F.; Poluzzi, V.; Bacco, D.; Leonardi, C.; Genga, A.; Langone, L.; Fuzzi, S. Reconstructing Elemental Carbon Long-Term Trend in the Po Valley (Italy) from Fog Water Samples. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 580. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060580

AMA Style

Gilardoni S, Tarozzi L, Sandrini S, Ielpo P, Contini D, Putaud J-P, Cavalli F, Poluzzi V, Bacco D, Leonardi C, Genga A, Langone L, Fuzzi S. Reconstructing Elemental Carbon Long-Term Trend in the Po Valley (Italy) from Fog Water Samples. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(6):580. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060580

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gilardoni, Stefania; Tarozzi, Leone; Sandrini, Silvia; Ielpo, Pierina; Contini, Daniele; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Poluzzi, Vanes; Bacco, Dimitri; Leonardi, Cristina; Genga, Alessandra; Langone, Leonardo; Fuzzi, Sandro. 2020. "Reconstructing Elemental Carbon Long-Term Trend in the Po Valley (Italy) from Fog Water Samples" Atmosphere 11, no. 6: 580. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11060580

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