Next Article in Journal
A Stratospheric Intrusion-Influenced Ozone Pollution Episode Associated with an Intense Horizontal-Trough Event
Previous Article in Journal
Carbonaceous Aerosols in Contrasting Atmospheric Environments in Greek Cities: Evaluation of the EC-tracer Methods for Secondary Organic Carbon Estimation
Open AccessArticle

Exposure Indices of Extreme Wind-Driven Rain Events for Built Heritage

UCL Institute for Sustainable Heritage, University College London, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Pl, London WC1H 0NN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020163
Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Urban Cultural Heritage)
Building performance and material change of cultural heritage in urban areas are negatively impacted by wind-driven rain (WDR). The frequency and intensity of WDR exposure are modified by climate change. Current approaches to exposure assessment emphasise prolonged exposure. Here, we propose indices to represent the exposure of cultural heritage to extreme WDR events. The indices are derived in two stages: (1) time-binning of long-term exposure, and (2) statistical representation of the occurrence of infrequent but intense events by fitting to the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. A comparison to an existing exposure assessment procedure demonstrates that the proposed indices better represent shorter, more intense, and more consistent WDR events. Indices developed for seasons had greater statistical confidence than those developed for annual exposure. One index is contextualised within a model of a gutter on a terraced building: this converts the index from a measure of exposure to potential impact. This evaluation demonstrated the importance of maintenance to reduce the potential impact of WDR events. This work has direct and indirect implications for developing robust assessment procedures for cultural heritage exposure to extreme weather events.
Keywords: historic buildings; risk assessment; WDR; resilience, sustainability; extreme value analysis historic buildings; risk assessment; WDR; resilience, sustainability; extreme value analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Orr, S.A.; Cassar, M. Exposure Indices of Extreme Wind-Driven Rain Events for Built Heritage. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop