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Geographical Imputation of Missing Poaceae Pollen Data via Convolutional Neural Networks
Open AccessArticle

Land-Use and Height of Pollen Sampling Affect Pollen Exposure in Munich, Germany

1
Center of Allergy & Environment (ZAUM), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Technical University/Helmholtz Center Munich, 80802 Munich, Germany
2
University of Castilla-La Mancha, Institute of Environmental Sciences (Botany), 45071 Toledo, Spain
3
Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, University of Malaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
4
Klinik und Poliklinik für Dermatologie und Allergologie, Klinikum der Universität München, 80337 Munich, Germany
5
German Pollen Information Service Foundation (PID), 10117 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020145
Received: 4 January 2020 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS Applications for Airborne Pollen Monitoring and Prediction)
Airborne pollen concentrations vary depending on the location of the pollen trap with respect to the pollen sources. Two Hirst-type pollen traps were analyzed within the city of Munich (Germany): one trap was located 2 m above ground level (AGL) and the other one at rooftop (35 m AGL), 4.2 km apart. In general, 1.4 ± 0.5 times higher pollen amounts were measured by the trap located at ground level, but this effect was less than expected considering the height difference between the traps. Pollen from woody trees such as Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Picea, Pinus and Quercus showed a good agreement between the traps in terms of timing and intensity. Similar amounts of pollen were recorded in the two traps when pollen sources were more abundant outside of the city. In contrast, pollen concentrations from Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Carpinus and Tilia were influenced by nearby pollen sources. The representativeness of both traps for herbaceous pollen depended on the dispersal capacity of the pollen grains, and in the case of Poaceae pollen, nearby pollen sources may influence the pollen content in the air. The timing of the pollen season was similar for both sites; however, the season for some pollen types ended later at ground level probably due to resuspension processes that would favor recirculation of pollen closer to ground level. We believe measurements from the higher station provides a picture of background pollen levels representative of a large area, to which local sources add additional and more variable pollen amounts.
Keywords: aerobiology; allergy risk; pollen; height; monitoring; network; sources aerobiology; allergy risk; pollen; height; monitoring; network; sources
MDPI and ACS Style

Rojo, J.; Oteros, J.; Picornell, A.; Ruëff, F.; Werchan, B.; Werchan, M.; Bergmann, K.-C.; Schmidt-Weber, C.B.; Buters, J. Land-Use and Height of Pollen Sampling Affect Pollen Exposure in Munich, Germany. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 145.

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