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Open AccessArticle

Characteristics of Aerosol during a Severe Haze-Fog Episode in the Yangtze River Delta: Particle Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties

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Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science &Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (Peking University), College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
4
Ordos Meteorological Bureau of Inner Mongolia, Ordos 017000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010056
Received: 1 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 2 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Aerosols)
Particle size distribution, water soluble ions, and black carbon (BC) concentration in a long-term haze-fog episode were measured using a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS), a monitor for aerosols and gases (MARGA), and an aethalometer (AE33) in Nanjing from 16 to 27 November, 2018. The observation included five processes of clean, mist, mix, haze, and fog. Combined with meteorological elements, the HYSPLIT model, and the IMPROVE model, we analyzed the particle size distribution, chemical composition, and optical properties of aerosols in different processes. The particle number size distribution (PNSD) in five processes differed: It was bimodal in mist and fog and unimodal in clean, mix, and haze. The particle surface area size distribution (PSSD) in different processes showed a bimodal distribution, and the second peak of the mix and fog processes shifted to a larger particle size at 480 nm. The dominant air masses in five processes differed and primarily originated in the northeast direction in the clean process and the southeast direction in the haze process. In the mist, mix, and fog processes local air masses dominated. NO3 was the primary component of water soluble ions, with the lowest proportion of 45.6% in the clean process and the highest proportion of 53.0% in the mix process. The ratio of NH4+ in the different processes was stable at approximately 23%. The ratio of SO42− in the clean process was 26.2%, and the ratio of other processes was approximately 20%. The average concentration of BC in the fog processes was 10,119 ng·m−3, which was 3.55, 1.80, 1.60, and 1.46 times that in the processes of clean, mist, mix, and haze, respectively. In the different processes, BC was primarily based on liquid fuel combustion. NO3, SO42−, and BC were the main contributors to the atmospheric extinction coefficient and contributed more than 90% in different processes. NO3 contributed 398.43 Mm−1 in the mix process, and SO42− and BC contributed 167.90 Mm−1 and 101.19 Mm−1, respectively, during the fog process. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerosol; size distribution; chemical composition; optical properties; Yangtze River Delta aerosol; size distribution; chemical composition; optical properties; Yangtze River Delta
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Liu, A.; Wang, H.; Cui, Y.; Shen, L.; Yin, Y.; Wu, Z.; Guo, S.; Shi, S.; Chen, K.; Zhu, B.; Wang, J.; Kong, X. Characteristics of Aerosol during a Severe Haze-Fog Episode in the Yangtze River Delta: Particle Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 56.

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