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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Particulate Matter Exposure on the Inflammatory Airway Response of Street Runners and Sedentary People

1
ENT Lab, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua dos Otonis, 700, Piso superior/Second floor, Sao Paulo 04025-002, Brazil
2
Method Faculty of Sao Paulo (FAMESP), Av. Jabaquara, 1314, Sao Paulo 04046-200, Brazil
3
KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Allergy and Clinical Immunology research group, UZ Herestraat 49 box 811, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
4
Medicine School, São Paulo University, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455-Cerqueira César, Sao Paulo 01246-903, Brazil
5
Post-graduation Program in Science of Human Movement and Rehabilitation, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Av. Ana Costa, 95-Vila Mathias-Santos, Sao Paulo 11060-001, Brazil
6
Brazilian Institute of Teaching and Research in Pulmonary and Exercise Immunology (IBEPIPE), Rua Pedro Ernesto 240, São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo 12245-520, Brazil
7
Post-graduation Program in Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering, Universidade Brasil, Rua Carolina Fonseca, 584, Itaquera, Sao Paulo 08230-030, Brazil
8
School of Medicine, Anhembi Morumbi University, Av. Deputado Benedito Matarazzo, 6070-Jardim Aquarius, São José dos Campos, Sao Paulo 04705-000, Brazil
9
Clinical Division of Pediatrics, UZ Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Divided first authorship.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010043
Received: 24 October 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 26 December 2019 / Published: 29 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution)
Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. However, its effects are not well known in a polluted environment. Thus, this study aimed to compare upper airway inflammatory responses between street runners and sedentary individuals. Twenty-eight volunteers were recruited: runners (n = 14) and sedentary individuals (n = 14), who lived and worked in the same metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Particulate matter (PM) levels were monitored ten weeks before winter (low PM levels) and ten weeks after the beginning of winter (high PM levels) [PM10 (p < 0.0001) and PM2.5 (p < 0.0001)]. The cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A) levels in the nasal lavage and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were taken at the beginning of the winter (baseline) and ten weeks afterwards (after ten weeks of high PM exposure). IL-6 concentration increased in both runners (p = 0.037) and sedentary individuals (p = 0.027) after high PM exposure compared to the baseline. IL-10 concentration increased in sedentary individuals (p = 0.037) while IL-17A levels were increased in runners (p = 0.001) after high PM exposure compared to the baseline. FeNO levels decreased in runners (p = 0.025) after high PM exposure compared to the baseline. Outdoor endurance training acts as an inducer of a differentiated immune response in the upper airways of runners compared to individuals with a sedentary lifestyle from the same community after elevated PM exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; airway; cytokines; runners; sedentary individuals; inflammation particulate matter; airway; cytokines; runners; sedentary individuals; inflammation
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Pagani, L.G.; Santos, J.M.; Foster, R.; Rossi, M.; Luna Junior, L.A.; Katekaru, C.M.; de Sá, M.C.; Jonckheere, A.-C.; Almeida, F.M.; Amaral, J.B.; Vieira, R.P.; Bullens, D.M.; Bachi, A.L.; Vaisberg, M. The Effect of Particulate Matter Exposure on the Inflammatory Airway Response of Street Runners and Sedentary People. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 43.

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