Topical Collection "Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution"

A topical collection in Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This collection belongs to the section "Air Quality and Human Health".

Editor

Prof. Dr. Luca Stabile
Website
Collection Editor
Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, 03043 Cassino, Italy
Interests: environment; exposure assessment; airborne particles; aerosol; environmental engineering

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The foremost aim of scientists investigating air pollution-related issues is the estimate of risk and health outcomes in exposed populations. The value of the information provided is obviously related to the models adopted, but it depends even more on the propaedeutic data for such estimates, i.e., the exposure assessment. The exposure is the consequence of pollutant emission from different sources and the following thermodynamic processes affecting those pollutants. Therefore, the prediction of such exposure is somehow complex; nevertheless, the exposure of a selected population can be really measured, and such measurement is crucial to properly estimate pollutants’ dose, risk, and health effects.

People are exposed to several pollutants, depending on the microenvironments where they live and work and the lifestyles that they adopt. Indeed, in the past, the scientific community has mainly investigated the air quality of outdoor environments, highlighting, as an example, the critical aspects of the existing standards. Currently, scientists are also trying to deal with the air quality of indoor microenvironments, since a number of researches clearly recognized such microenvironments as worse than the outdoor ones in terms of people exposure to hazardous pollutants.

A significant advancement in characterizing the exposures to pollutants can be achieved only considering a multidisciplinary approach involving techniques, methods, and know-how of air quality experts, metrologists, epidemiologists, engineers, chemists, and physicists. This is the purpose of the Special Issue “Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution” that welcomes researches considering all the different aspects related to the exposure assessment. In particular, the issue will involve, but it is not limited to, studies (a) evaluating the exposure to different pollutants in particular microenvironments (both indoor and outdoor), (b) investigating the effectiveness of technical solutions to reduce the exposure, (c) modelling the dynamics of the different pollutants to predict the exposure, (d) highlighting the effect of the instrument metrological performance on a proper evaluation of the exposure, (e) characterizing the emission of sources not yet examined, (f) proposing new exposure assessment methods and approaches.

Prof. Dr. Luca Stabile
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • air pollution
  • exposure
  • airborne particles
  • ventilation
  • portable instruments
  • indoor air quality
  • outdoor air quality
  • filtration
  • exposure population study
  • measurements
  • PM chemical analysis
  • pollutant dispersion

Published Papers (14 papers)

2020

Jump to: 2019

Open AccessArticle
Allergic Rhinitis: Association with Air Pollution and Weather Changes, and Comparison with That of Allergic Conjunctivitis in Taiwan
Atmosphere 2020, 11(11), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11111152 - 26 Oct 2020
Abstract
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and rhinitis (AR) are common allergic diseases that may be environmentally related. We used a systematic sampling cohort database, which was applied in an AC study previously, to examine the association of AR with air pollution and weather changes. A [...] Read more.
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and rhinitis (AR) are common allergic diseases that may be environmentally related. We used a systematic sampling cohort database, which was applied in an AC study previously, to examine the association of AR with air pollution and weather changes. A case-crossover design coupled with conditional logistic analysis was implemented in the analysis; we identified 140,365 eligible AR subjects, and matched their diagnoses with environmental monitoring data. Unlike AC, the descriptive statistics indicated that AR occurred the most in adults under 50 years old by age (44.7%), and in winter by season (28.7%) (p < 0.001); similar to AC, AR occurred more in women than to men. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was found to be positively associated with AR (p < 0.001), whereas relative humidity and temperature were negatively related (p < 0.001). We found that the risk of AR increased with descending NO2 levels relative to AC (OR = 0.984, p = 0.003) after adjustment for covariates. It is suggested that AR could be triggered or exacerbated by lower levels of NO2 than is AC. We recommend that AR patients pay extra attention to air pollution and mitigate their allergic problem accordingly. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Pollution Characteristics, Chemical Compositions, and Population Health Risks during the 2018 Winter Haze Episode in Jianghan Plain, Central China
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090954 - 07 Sep 2020
Abstract
To determine the pollution characteristics, chemical compositions, and population health risks of PM2.5 at different pollution levels, PM2.5 samples were intensively collected during the long-lasting winter haze episode from 13–23 January 2018 in Xiantao in Jianghan Plain (JHP), central China. The [...] Read more.
To determine the pollution characteristics, chemical compositions, and population health risks of PM2.5 at different pollution levels, PM2.5 samples were intensively collected during the long-lasting winter haze episode from 13–23 January 2018 in Xiantao in Jianghan Plain (JHP), central China. The higher PM2.5 levels during the severe pollution period were dominated by the WNW-NNE air-masses, whereas the lower PM2.5 concentrations during other pollution periods were mainly affected by the NE, S, and NW air-masses. The NO3/SO42− and OC/EC ratios indicated a mixed contribution of intensive vehicle exhaust and secondary formation. The enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index for assessing the PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s contamination levels were positively correlated. Ingestion is the dominant exposure pathway of PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s for children and adults, followed by inhalation and dermal contact. As, Cr, and Pb may pose carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks, whereas Sb and V may only pose non-carcinogenic risks for children and adults. The population health risks may not depend on the pollution levels but depend on the PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s concentrations. PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s may pose much higher population health risks for adults compared to children. More attentions should be paid to the population health risks of PM2.5-bound metal(loid)s during a long-lasting winter haze episode in JHP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Submicron and Ultrafine Particles in Downtown Rome: How the Different Euro Engines Have Influenced Their Behavior for Two Decades
Atmosphere 2020, 11(9), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11090894 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Today, submicron particles are recognized as the new target in environmental sciences and human health issues as well. Their level in urban air is strongly affected by anthropogenic sources, i.e., domestic heating and autovehicular traffic, but the availability of large datasets represents a [...] Read more.
Today, submicron particles are recognized as the new target in environmental sciences and human health issues as well. Their level in urban air is strongly affected by anthropogenic sources, i.e., domestic heating and autovehicular traffic, but the availability of large datasets represents a limit in the knowledge both of the behavior and of the relative levels. This paper would like to highlight the role of these two anthropogenic sources in a big city such as Rome in the particle formation/removal processes in the range 18–750 nm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Analyser (SMPS). The investigation starts from data collected in the previous decade (2010) and analyzes the role played by different Euro (0–6) engines on the particle levels as well as the responsibility of different biomass burning in this issue. Furthermore, a chemometric approach (Cluster Analysis, CA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) has allowed the identification of three different clusters, strongly dependent on the accumulation and nucleation modes of the Ultrafine Particles. On the other hand, the PCA demonstrated a scatter distribution in December larger than that in October, justified by the different sources present in these periods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Statistical Calibration Framework for Improving Non-Reference Method Particulate Matter Reporting: A Focus on Community Air Monitoring Settings
Atmosphere 2020, 11(8), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11080807 - 30 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recent advancement in lower-cost air monitoring technology has resulted in an increased interest in community-based air quality studies. However, non-reference monitoring (NRM; e.g., low-cost sensors) is imperfect and approaches that improve data quality are highly desired. Herein, we illustrate a framework for adjusting [...] Read more.
Recent advancement in lower-cost air monitoring technology has resulted in an increased interest in community-based air quality studies. However, non-reference monitoring (NRM; e.g., low-cost sensors) is imperfect and approaches that improve data quality are highly desired. Herein, we illustrate a framework for adjusting continuous NRM measures of particulate matter (PM) with field-based comparisons and non-linear statistical modeling as an example of instrument evaluation prior to exposure assessment. First, we collected continuous measurements of PM with a NRM technology collocated with a US EPA federal equivalent method (FEM). Next, we fit a generalized additive model (GAM) to establish a non-linear calibration curve that defines the relationship between the NRM and FEM data. Then, we used our fitted model to generate calibrated NRM PM data. Evaluation of raw NRM PM2.5 data revealed strong correlation with FEM (R = 0.9) but an average bias (AB) of −2.84 µg/m3 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.85 µg/m3, with 406 h of data. Fitting of our GAM revealed that the correlation structure was maintained (r = 0.9) and that average bias (AB = 0) and error (RMSE = 0) were minimized. We conclude that field-based statistical calibration models can be used to reduce bias and improve NRM data used for community air monitoring studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Health Risk Assessment of the Levels of BTEX in Ambient Air of One Urban Site Located in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico during Two Climatic Seasons
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020165 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Levels of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene) were determined in ambient air of an urban site located at the center of Mexico (Leon City in Guanajuato State) during two climatic seasons of 2018 (summer and autumn). Ethylbenzene (11.86 µg m−3) [...] Read more.
Levels of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene) were determined in ambient air of an urban site located at the center of Mexico (Leon City in Guanajuato State) during two climatic seasons of 2018 (summer and autumn). Ethylbenzene (11.86 µg m−3) and toluene (11.85 µg m−3) showed the highest median concentrations during the study period. BTEX concentrations did not show a diurnal pattern but a seasonal trend was observed for benzene and toluene at a significant level of α = 0.05. Bi-variate and multivariate analysis showed significant positive correlations (at α = 0.05) among BTEX (excepting benzene), indicating common sources for toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene and a different origin for benzene. A meteorological study was also conducted in order to determine the origin of air masses that could influence the BTEX concentrations in the study site. Finally, it was found that all BTEX species presented hazard quotient values (HQs) <1, indicating that there is no risk of non-cancer during the studied period. Lifetime cancer risk due to benzene exposure for the adult and child populations studied were estimated to be 7 in 1,000,000 and 1 in 100,000, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Novel Approaches to Air Pollution Exposure and Clinical Outcomes Assessment in Environmental Health Studies
Atmosphere 2020, 11(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020122 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
An accurate assessment of pollutants’ exposure and precise evaluation of the clinical outcomes pose two major challenges to the contemporary environmental health research. The common methods for exposure assessment are based on residential addresses and are prone to many biases. Pollution levels are [...] Read more.
An accurate assessment of pollutants’ exposure and precise evaluation of the clinical outcomes pose two major challenges to the contemporary environmental health research. The common methods for exposure assessment are based on residential addresses and are prone to many biases. Pollution levels are defined based on monitoring stations that are sparsely distributed and frequently distanced far from residential addresses. In addition, the degree of an association between outdoor and indoor air pollution levels is not fully elucidated, making the exposure assessment all the more inaccurate. Clinical outcomes’ assessment, on the other hand, mostly relies on the access to medical records from hospital admissions and outpatients’ visits in clinics. This method differentiates by health care seeking behavior and is therefore, problematic in evaluation of an onset, duration, and severity of an outcome. In the current paper, we review a number of novel solutions aimed to mitigate the aforementioned biases. First, a hybrid satellite-based modeling approach provides daily continuous spatiotemporal estimations with improved spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2 and 200 × 200 m2 grid, and thus allows a more accurate exposure assessment. Utilizing low-cost air pollution sensors allowing a direct measurement of indoor air pollution levels can further validate these models. Furthermore, the real temporal-spatial activity can be assessed by GPS tracking devices within the individuals’ smartphones. A widespread use of smart devices can help with obtaining objective measurements of some of the clinical outcomes such as vital signs and glucose levels. Finally, human biomonitoring can be efficiently done at a population level, providing accurate estimates of in-vivo absorbed pollutants and allowing for the evaluation of body responses, by biomarkers examination. We suggest that the adoption of these novel methods will change the research paradigm heavily relying on ecological methodology and support development of the new clinical practices preventing adverse environmental effects on human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PM10 and PM2.5 Qualitative Source Apportionment Using Selective Wind Direction Sampling in a Port-Industrial Area in Civitavecchia, Italy
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010094 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
The possibility to discriminate between different emission sources and between natural and anthropogenic contributions is a key issue for planning efficient air pollution reduction and mitigation strategies. Moreover, the knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) chemical composition for the different size fractions is [...] Read more.
The possibility to discriminate between different emission sources and between natural and anthropogenic contributions is a key issue for planning efficient air pollution reduction and mitigation strategies. Moreover, the knowledge of the particulate matter (PM) chemical composition for the different size fractions is recognized as increasingly important, in particular with respect to health effects of exposed population. This study is focused on the characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 main sources located in the Civitavecchia harbor-industrial area (Central Italy), namely a large coal-fired power plant, a natural gas power plant, the harbor area, the vehicular traffic (due to both the local traffic and the highway crossing the area) and small industrial activities. The approach was based on PM10/PM2.5 samples monthly collected for one year and a further relative chemical characterization of organic and inorganic fractions. Wind-select sensors, allowing a selective PM10 and PM2.5 sampling downwind to specific emission sources, were used for the overall sampling. This methodology manages to explain specific emission patterns and to assess the concentration levels of the micro pollutants emitted by local sources and particularly toxic for health. A descriptive statistical analysis of data was performed, also verifying the occurrence of legislative threshold exceedances. Moreover, in order to highlight the contribution of specific sources, the differences in the measured micro pollutants concentrations between wind directions, PM size fractions and sampling sites have been investigated, as well as the seasonal trends of pollutants concentrations. These results allow to highlight that the applied methodology represents a valid support in source apportionment studies. Full article
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2019

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Particulate Matter Exposure on the Inflammatory Airway Response of Street Runners and Sedentary People
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010043 - 29 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. However, its effects are not well known in a polluted environment. Thus, this study aimed to compare upper airway inflammatory responses between street runners and sedentary individuals. Twenty-eight volunteers were recruited: runners (n = 14) and [...] Read more.
Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. However, its effects are not well known in a polluted environment. Thus, this study aimed to compare upper airway inflammatory responses between street runners and sedentary individuals. Twenty-eight volunteers were recruited: runners (n = 14) and sedentary individuals (n = 14), who lived and worked in the same metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Particulate matter (PM) levels were monitored ten weeks before winter (low PM levels) and ten weeks after the beginning of winter (high PM levels) [PM10 (p < 0.0001) and PM2.5 (p < 0.0001)]. The cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A) levels in the nasal lavage and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were taken at the beginning of the winter (baseline) and ten weeks afterwards (after ten weeks of high PM exposure). IL-6 concentration increased in both runners (p = 0.037) and sedentary individuals (p = 0.027) after high PM exposure compared to the baseline. IL-10 concentration increased in sedentary individuals (p = 0.037) while IL-17A levels were increased in runners (p = 0.001) after high PM exposure compared to the baseline. FeNO levels decreased in runners (p = 0.025) after high PM exposure compared to the baseline. Outdoor endurance training acts as an inducer of a differentiated immune response in the upper airways of runners compared to individuals with a sedentary lifestyle from the same community after elevated PM exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Cohort Study on Respiratory Symptoms and Diseases Caused by Toner-Handling Work: Longitudinal Analyses from 2003 to 2013
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110647 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of toner-handling work on respiratory symptoms and diseases. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1468 workers between 2003 and 2013. The cohort included 887 toner-handling workers and 581 non-toner-handling workers, employed in [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of toner-handling work on respiratory symptoms and diseases. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1468 workers between 2003 and 2013. The cohort included 887 toner-handling workers and 581 non-toner-handling workers, employed in one toner and copier manufacturing enterprise. Toner-handling workers were subdivided into two groups based on the 8-h time-weighted average toner exposure concentration for each work category in the baseline survey. We compared the incidence of respiratory disease and longitudinal changes in the prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms among three groups, as follows: High-concentration toner exposure group, the low-concentration toner exposure group, and a control group. The incidence of respiratory disease and changes in the prevalence of subjective respiratory symptoms were similar between the non-toner-handling group and the toner-handling group. In contrast, the odds ratio for yearly changes in the prevalence of wheezing without asthmatic response was significantly lower in the high-concentration toner exposure group than in the control group. At the study site, dust scattering was well controlled and workers used respiratory protection appropriately. These findings suggest that toner-handling work had little adverse effect on respiratory function in a work environment with sufficiently controlled ventilation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Changes in Interclone Variation Following Ozone Exposure on Three Major Gene Pools: An Analysis of Cryptomeria Japonica Clones
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110643 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
Recently, there has been a continuous increase in the concentration of tropospheric ozone in urban forests in Japan. Since monoterpenes are precursors to ozone, we need to evaluate the effects of ozone exposure on all tree species that are considered to be sources [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been a continuous increase in the concentration of tropospheric ozone in urban forests in Japan. Since monoterpenes are precursors to ozone, we need to evaluate the effects of ozone exposure on all tree species that are considered to be sources of monoterpenes. Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most widely planted afforestation tree, is classified into three different gene pools. However, the interclone variation for seasonal changes in the ozone exposure effect has not been evaluated. Thus, free-air ozone enhancement experiments were conducted using three representative clones of C. japonica in the summer and winter. After exposure to twice the ozone concentration in the ambient atmosphere, the effect on the monoterpene emission rate was found to be considerably different among the clones and for the different seasons. The monoterpene emission rate after ozone exposure increased in winter and summer in the native clones (Donden and Yakushima) in the snow area and heavy rain area, respectively. Since monoterpenes are antibacterial substances, each clone adapted sensitivity to stress during each season upon considerable damage. These results suggest that not only differences between tree species but also differences between clones are important for evaluating seasonal variation characteristics after ozone exposure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trace Metal Content and Health Risk Assessment of PM10 in an Urban Environment of León, Mexico
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100573 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Trace metal concentrations in PM10 were measured in an urban–industrial site in León, Mexico in three different seasons. PM10 were collected in quartz fiber filters of 47 mm diameter using low volume equipment operating with a controlled flow of 5 L [...] Read more.
Trace metal concentrations in PM10 were measured in an urban–industrial site in León, Mexico in three different seasons. PM10 were collected in quartz fiber filters of 47 mm diameter using low volume equipment operating with a controlled flow of 5 L min−1 over 24 h. Mass concentrations were gravimetrically determined and it was found that PM10 samples showed values in excess of the Mexican standard and the established values by WHO during cold dry and warm dry seasons. Morphology of selected particles was studied by SEM-EDS analysis, and the elemental composition was determined. Collected samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in order to quantify ambient air concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Fe, Mg, and Mn). Median concentrations of trace metals showed the maximum value for iron (3.079 μgm−3) and the minimum value for Cd (0.050 μgm−3) over the entire period. From the meteorological analysis, it was found that sources located SW and ESE of the sampling site contributed to the levels of trace metals in PM10 in the studied site. The health risk assessment found that the population of León is at increased lifetime risk of experiencing cancer because of exposure to these concentrations of PM10 and their trace metal content. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Inhaled Deposited Dose of Urban Aerosols in an Eastern Mediterranean City
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090530 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
We calculated the regional deposited dose of inhaled particulate matter based on number/mass concentrations in Amman, Jordan. The dose rate was the highest during exercising but was generally lower for females compared to males. The fine particles dose rate was 1010–10 [...] Read more.
We calculated the regional deposited dose of inhaled particulate matter based on number/mass concentrations in Amman, Jordan. The dose rate was the highest during exercising but was generally lower for females compared to males. The fine particles dose rate was 1010–1011 particles/h (101–102 µg/h). The PM10 dose rate was 49–439 µg/h for males and 36–381 µg/h for females. While resting, the PM10 deposited in the head airways was 67–77% and 8–12% in the tracheobronchial region. When exercising, the head airways received 37–44% of the PM10, whereas the tracheobronchial region received 31–35%. About 8% (exercise) and 14–16% (rest) of the PM2.5 was received in the head airways, whereas the alveolar received 74–76% (exercise) and 54–62% (rest). Extending the results for common exposure scenarios in the city revealed alarming results for service workers and police officers; they might receive PM2.5 and 220 µg/h PM10 while doing their duty on main roads adjacent to traffic. This is especially critical for a pregnant police officer. Outdoor athletic activities (e.g., jogging along main roads) are associated with high PM2.5 and PM10 dose rates (100 µg/h and ~425 µg/h, respectively). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Commuter Exposure to Black Carbon, Fine Particulate Matter and Particle Number Concentration in Ferry and at the Pier in Istanbul
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080439 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper presents measurements and analyses of the concentrations of black carbon (BC), particle number concentration (PNC), and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) while commuting by ferries in Istanbul. In this context, exposures to the mentioned pollutants were estimated for car ferry, fast ferry, [...] Read more.
This paper presents measurements and analyses of the concentrations of black carbon (BC), particle number concentration (PNC), and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) while commuting by ferries in Istanbul. In this context, exposures to the mentioned pollutants were estimated for car ferry, fast ferry, and at the piers, and for two travel routes, for a total of 89 trips. BC, PNC, and PM2.5 measurements were simultaneously performed in a ferry and at the piers, and the correlation between pollutant concentrations, meteorological parameters, and environmental factors were analyzed. The mean concentrations for all pollutants in car ferry were lower than the average concentrations in fast ferry. The concentration ratios of fast ferry to car ferry for BC, PNC, and PM2.5 were 6.4, 1.2, and 1.3, respectively. High variability in the concentrations was observed at the piers and in ferry during berthing. The highest mean concentrations (±standard deviation) of BC (14.3 ± 10.1 µg m−3) and PNC (42,005 ± 30,899 pt cm−3) were measured at Yalova pier. The highest mean concentration (±standard deviation) of PM2.5 (26.1 ± 11.5) was measured at Bostancı pier. It was observed that the main external sources of BC, PNC, and PM2.5 at the piers were road transport, residential heating, and shipping activity. There were no significant correlations between BC, PNC, and PM2.5 in fast ferry, while BC was positively correlated with PNC (r = 0.61, p < 0.01) and PM2.5 (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) in car ferry. At the piers, significant relations between pollutants and meteorological variables were observed. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between summer and winter in ferry and at the pier concentrations of BC, PNC, and PM2.5 except for Yenikapı pier and Bakırköy pier. The highest total exposure to PNC and PM2.5 was in car ferry mode, while the highest total exposure to BC was in fast ferry mode. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
On the Effects of Lateral Openings on Courtyard Ventilation and Pollution—A Large-Eddy Simulation Study
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020063 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Courtyards are an omnipresent feature within the urban environment. Residents often use courtyards as recreation areas, which makes them crucial for the physical and psychological comfort of the urban population. However, considering that courtyards represent enclosed cavities, they are often poorly ventilated spaces [...] Read more.
Courtyards are an omnipresent feature within the urban environment. Residents often use courtyards as recreation areas, which makes them crucial for the physical and psychological comfort of the urban population. However, considering that courtyards represent enclosed cavities, they are often poorly ventilated spaces and pollutants from neighboring traffic, once entrained, can pose a serious threat to human health. Here, we studied the effects of lateral openings on courtyard pollution and ventilation. Therefore, we performed a set of large-eddy simulations for idealized urban environments with different courtyard configurations. While pollutant concentration and ventilation are barely modified by lateral openings for wide courtyards, lateral openings have a significant effect on the mean concentration, the number of high-concentration events and the ventilation within narrower and deeper courtyards. The impacts of lateral openings on air quality within courtyards strongly depend on their orientation with respect to the flow direction, as well as on the upstream flow conditions and upstream building configuration. We show that lateral openings, in most cases, have a negative impact on air quality; nevertheless, we also present configurations where lateral openings positively impact the air quality within courtyards. These outcomes may certainly contribute to improve future urban planning in terms of health protection. Full article
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