Special Issue "Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Assist. Prof. Luca Stabile
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, 03043 Cassino, Italy
Tel. +39 07762993668
Interests: environment; exposure assessment; airborne particles; aerosol; environmental engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The foremost aim of scientists investigating air pollution-related issues is the estimate of risk and health outcomes in exposed populations. The value of the information provided is obviously related to the models adopted, but it depends even more on the propaedeutic data for such estimates, i.e., the exposure assessment. The exposure is the consequence of pollutant emission from different sources and the following thermodynamic processes affecting those pollutants. Therefore, the prediction of such exposure is somehow complex; nevertheless, the exposure of a selected population can be really measured, and such measurement is crucial to properly estimate pollutants’ dose, risk, and health effects.

People are exposed to several pollutants, depending on the microenvironments where they live and work and the lifestyles that they adopt. Indeed, in the past, the scientific community has mainly investigated the air quality of outdoor environments, highlighting, as an example, the critical aspects of the existing standards. Currently, scientists are also trying to deal with the air quality of indoor microenvironments, since a number of researches clearly recognized such microenvironments as worse than the outdoor ones in terms of people exposure to hazardous pollutants.

A significant advancement in characterizing the exposures to pollutants can be achieved only considering a multidisciplinary approach involving techniques, methods, and know-how of air quality experts, metrologists, epidemiologists, engineers, chemists, and physicists. This is the purpose of the Special Issue “Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution” that welcomes researches considering all the different aspects related to the exposure assessment. In particular, the issue will involve, but it is not limited to, studies (a) evaluating the exposure to different pollutants in particular microenvironments (both indoor and outdoor), (b) investigating the effectiveness of technical solutions to reduce the exposure, (c) modelling the dynamics of the different pollutants to predict the exposure, (d) highlighting the effect of the instrument metrological performance on a proper evaluation of the exposure, (e) characterizing the emission of sources not yet examined, (f) proposing new exposure assessment methods and approaches.

Dr. Luca Stabile
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • air pollution
  • exposure
  • airborne particles
  • ventilation
  • portable instruments
  • indoor air quality
  • outdoor air quality
  • filtration
  • exposure population study
  • measurements
  • PM chemical analysis
  • pollutant dispersion

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Trace Metal Content and Health Risk Assessment of PM10 in an Urban Environment of León, Mexico
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100573 - 23 Sep 2019
Abstract
Trace metal concentrations in PM10 were measured in an urban–industrial site in León, Mexico in three different seasons. PM10 were collected in quartz fiber filters of 47 mm diameter using low volume equipment operating with a controlled flow of 5 L [...] Read more.
Trace metal concentrations in PM10 were measured in an urban–industrial site in León, Mexico in three different seasons. PM10 were collected in quartz fiber filters of 47 mm diameter using low volume equipment operating with a controlled flow of 5 L min−1 over 24 h. Mass concentrations were gravimetrically determined and it was found that PM10 samples showed values in excess of the Mexican standard and the established values by WHO during cold dry and warm dry seasons. Morphology of selected particles was studied by SEM-EDS analysis, and the elemental composition was determined. Collected samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry in order to quantify ambient air concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Fe, Mg, and Mn). Median concentrations of trace metals showed the maximum value for iron (3.079 μgm−3) and the minimum value for Cd (0.050 μgm−3) over the entire period. From the meteorological analysis, it was found that sources located SW and ESE of the sampling site contributed to the levels of trace metals in PM10 in the studied site. The health risk assessment found that the population of León is at increased lifetime risk of experiencing cancer because of exposure to these concentrations of PM10 and their trace metal content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Inhaled Deposited Dose of Urban Aerosols in an Eastern Mediterranean City
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090530 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
We calculated the regional deposited dose of inhaled particulate matter based on number/mass concentrations in Amman, Jordan. The dose rate was the highest during exercising but was generally lower for females compared to males. The fine particles dose rate was 1010–10 [...] Read more.
We calculated the regional deposited dose of inhaled particulate matter based on number/mass concentrations in Amman, Jordan. The dose rate was the highest during exercising but was generally lower for females compared to males. The fine particles dose rate was 1010–1011 particles/h (101–102 µg/h). The PM10 dose rate was 49–439 µg/h for males and 36–381 µg/h for females. While resting, the PM10 deposited in the head airways was 67–77% and 8–12% in the tracheobronchial region. When exercising, the head airways received 37–44% of the PM10, whereas the tracheobronchial region received 31–35%. About 8% (exercise) and 14–16% (rest) of the PM2.5 was received in the head airways, whereas the alveolar received 74–76% (exercise) and 54–62% (rest). Extending the results for common exposure scenarios in the city revealed alarming results for service workers and police officers; they might receive PM2.5 and 220 µg/h PM10 while doing their duty on main roads adjacent to traffic. This is especially critical for a pregnant police officer. Outdoor athletic activities (e.g., jogging along main roads) are associated with high PM2.5 and PM10 dose rates (100 µg/h and ~425 µg/h, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle
Commuter Exposure to Black Carbon, Fine Particulate Matter and Particle Number Concentration in Ferry and at the Pier in Istanbul
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080439 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
This paper presents measurements and analyses of the concentrations of black carbon (BC), particle number concentration (PNC), and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) while commuting by ferries in Istanbul. In this context, exposures to the mentioned pollutants were estimated for car ferry, fast ferry, [...] Read more.
This paper presents measurements and analyses of the concentrations of black carbon (BC), particle number concentration (PNC), and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) while commuting by ferries in Istanbul. In this context, exposures to the mentioned pollutants were estimated for car ferry, fast ferry, and at the piers, and for two travel routes, for a total of 89 trips. BC, PNC, and PM2.5 measurements were simultaneously performed in a ferry and at the piers, and the correlation between pollutant concentrations, meteorological parameters, and environmental factors were analyzed. The mean concentrations for all pollutants in car ferry were lower than the average concentrations in fast ferry. The concentration ratios of fast ferry to car ferry for BC, PNC, and PM2.5 were 6.4, 1.2, and 1.3, respectively. High variability in the concentrations was observed at the piers and in ferry during berthing. The highest mean concentrations (±standard deviation) of BC (14.3 ± 10.1 µg m−3) and PNC (42,005 ± 30,899 pt cm−3) were measured at Yalova pier. The highest mean concentration (±standard deviation) of PM2.5 (26.1 ± 11.5) was measured at Bostancı pier. It was observed that the main external sources of BC, PNC, and PM2.5 at the piers were road transport, residential heating, and shipping activity. There were no significant correlations between BC, PNC, and PM2.5 in fast ferry, while BC was positively correlated with PNC (r = 0.61, p < 0.01) and PM2.5 (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) in car ferry. At the piers, significant relations between pollutants and meteorological variables were observed. It was noticed that there was no significant difference between summer and winter in ferry and at the pier concentrations of BC, PNC, and PM2.5 except for Yenikapı pier and Bakırköy pier. The highest total exposure to PNC and PM2.5 was in car ferry mode, while the highest total exposure to BC was in fast ferry mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Effects of Lateral Openings on Courtyard Ventilation and Pollution—A Large-Eddy Simulation Study
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020063 - 01 Feb 2019
Abstract
Courtyards are an omnipresent feature within the urban environment. Residents often use courtyards as recreation areas, which makes them crucial for the physical and psychological comfort of the urban population. However, considering that courtyards represent enclosed cavities, they are often poorly ventilated spaces [...] Read more.
Courtyards are an omnipresent feature within the urban environment. Residents often use courtyards as recreation areas, which makes them crucial for the physical and psychological comfort of the urban population. However, considering that courtyards represent enclosed cavities, they are often poorly ventilated spaces and pollutants from neighboring traffic, once entrained, can pose a serious threat to human health. Here, we studied the effects of lateral openings on courtyard pollution and ventilation. Therefore, we performed a set of large-eddy simulations for idealized urban environments with different courtyard configurations. While pollutant concentration and ventilation are barely modified by lateral openings for wide courtyards, lateral openings have a significant effect on the mean concentration, the number of high-concentration events and the ventilation within narrower and deeper courtyards. The impacts of lateral openings on air quality within courtyards strongly depend on their orientation with respect to the flow direction, as well as on the upstream flow conditions and upstream building configuration. We show that lateral openings, in most cases, have a negative impact on air quality; nevertheless, we also present configurations where lateral openings positively impact the air quality within courtyards. These outcomes may certainly contribute to improve future urban planning in terms of health protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure Assessment of Air Pollution)
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