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Open AccessArticle

Inverting the East Asian Dust Emission Fluxes Using the Ensemble Kalman Smoother and Himawari-8 AODs: A Case Study with WRF-Chem v3.5.1

1
State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210024, China
3
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
4
Faculty of Science, Free University of Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
Earth Observation Research Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090543
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil/Mineral Dust Aerosols in the Earth System)
We present the inversions (back-calculations or optimizations) of dust emissions for a severe winter dust event over East Asia in November 2016. The inversion system based on a fixed-lag ensemble Kalman smoother is newly implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model and is coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). The assimilated observations are the hourly aerosol optical depths (AODs) from the next-generation geostationary satellite Himawari-8. The posterior total dust emissions (2.59 Tg) for this event are 3.8 times higher than the priori total dust emissions (0.68 Tg) during 25–27 November 2016. The net result is that the simulated aerosol horizontal and vertical distributions are both in better agreement with the assimilated Himawari-8 observations and independent observations from the ground-based AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). The developed emission inversion approach, combined with the geostationary satellite observations, can be very helpful for properly estimating the Asian dust emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: dust emissions; ensemble Kalman smoother; Himawari-8; aerosol optical depths dust emissions; ensemble Kalman smoother; Himawari-8; aerosol optical depths
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Dai, T.; Cheng, Y.; Goto, D.; Schutgens, N.A.J.; Kikuchi, M.; Yoshida, M.; Shi, G.; Nakajima, T. Inverting the East Asian Dust Emission Fluxes Using the Ensemble Kalman Smoother and Himawari-8 AODs: A Case Study with WRF-Chem v3.5.1. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 543.

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