Climatic Factors in Relation to Diarrhoea Hospital Admissions in Rural Limpopo, South Africa
2.1. Study Setting and Data
2.2. Contour Analysis
- Seasonal patterns that repeated with a fixed period of time (defined according to season with spring: September-October-November (SON); summer: December-January-February (DJF); autumn: March-April-May (MAM); and winter: June-July-August (JJA)) considered on a monthly scale and deemed as the climatological means;
- The underlying trend which could be related to the effort of collecting diarrhoea data, the effect of some community-based intervention or population growth, etc.;
- The residuals of the original time series obtained after the seasonal and trend components were removed, which is thus termed the random component, i.e., the anomalies. Anomalies were calculated according to Equation (1):A(t) = X(t) − S(t) − T(t),
2.3. Ethics Statement
3.1. Hospital Admission Counts
3.2. Precipitation and Diarrhoea Case Counts for Individuals 5 Years and Older
3.3. Precipitation and Diarrhoea Case Counts for Children Under 5 Years of Age
3.4. Temperature and Diarrhoea Case Counts for Individuals Aged 5 Years and Older
3.5. Temperature and Diarrhoea Case Counts for Children Under 5 Years of Age
Conflicts of Interest
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|Mean Tmax (°C) (Tmax SE)||24.0 (0.2)||28.7 (0.2)||29.7 (0.2)||26.9 (0.2)|
|Mean Tmin (°C) (Tmin SE)||11.1 (0.1)||16.2 (0.1)||19.3 (0.1)||15.6 (0.2)|
|Mean Prcp (mm) (Prcp SE)||0.6 (0.2)||7.4 (1.1)||19.5 (2.6)||6.9 (1.4)|
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Ikeda, T.; Kapwata, T.; Behera, S.K.; Minakawa, N.; Hashizume, M.; Sweijd, N.; Mathee, A.; Wright, C.Y. Climatic Factors in Relation to Diarrhoea Hospital Admissions in Rural Limpopo, South Africa. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 522. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090522
Ikeda T, Kapwata T, Behera SK, Minakawa N, Hashizume M, Sweijd N, Mathee A, Wright CY. Climatic Factors in Relation to Diarrhoea Hospital Admissions in Rural Limpopo, South Africa. Atmosphere. 2019; 10(9):522. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090522Chicago/Turabian Style
Ikeda, Takayoshi, Thandi Kapwata, Swadhin K. Behera, Noboru Minakawa, Masahiro Hashizume, Neville Sweijd, Angela Mathee, and Caradee Yael Wright. 2019. "Climatic Factors in Relation to Diarrhoea Hospital Admissions in Rural Limpopo, South Africa" Atmosphere 10, no. 9: 522. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090522