Next Article in Journal
Wind Stress in the Coastal Zone: Observations from a Buoy in Southwestern Norway
Next Article in Special Issue
Differentiation of Particulate Matter Sources Based on the Chemical Composition of PM10 in Functional Urban Areas
Previous Article in Journal
Spatial Predictability of Heavy Rainfall Events in East China and the Application of Spatial-Based Methods of Probabilistic Forecasting
Open AccessArticle

Characterising Particulate Organic Nitrogen at A Savannah-Grassland Region in South Africa

Unit for Environmental Science and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, PO Box 55, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Finnish Meteorological Institute, PO Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 492;
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 16 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 26 August 2019
Although atmospheric organic N compounds are considered to be important, especially in new particle formation and their contribution to brown carbon, these species are not that well understood. This can be partially attributed to their chemical complexity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of organic N compounds utilising comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GCxGC-TOFMS) in aerosol samples that were collected at a savanna-grassland background region and to determine the possible sources. 135 atmospheric organic N compounds were tentatively characterised and semi-quantified, which included amines, nitriles, amides, urea, pyridine derivatives, amino acids, nitro-and nitroso compounds, imines, cyanates and isocyanates, and azo compounds. Amines contributed to 51% of the semi-quantified concentrations, while nitriles, pyridine derivatives, and amides comprised 20%, 11%, and 8%, respectively, of the semi-quantified concentrations. Amines, nitriles, amides, and pyridine derivatives concentrations were higher during the dry season, which were attributed to meteorology and open biomass burning. Anthropogenic sources impacting air masses measured at Welgegund, as well as regional agricultural activities, were considered as the major sources of amines, while the regional influence of household combustion was most likely the main source of nitriles, amides, and pyridine derivatives. The other organic N species were most likely related to the influence of local and regional agricultural activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric aerosols; organic aerosols; amines; agricultural; GCxGC-TOFMS; Welgegund atmospheric aerosols; organic aerosols; amines; agricultural; GCxGC-TOFMS; Welgegund
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Booyens, W.; Van Zyl, P.G.; Beukes, J.P.; Ruiz-Jimenez, J.; Kopperi, M.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Vakkari, V.; Josipovic, M.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L. Characterising Particulate Organic Nitrogen at A Savannah-Grassland Region in South Africa. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 492.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop