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Open AccessArticle

Impacts of In-Cabin Exposure to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matters and Carbon Monoxide on Changes in Heart Rate Variability for Healthy Public Transit Commuters

1
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
2
School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
3
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
4
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan
6
Cell Physiology and Molecular Image Research Center, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11696, Taiwan
7
Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City 23561, Taiwan
8
Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
9
Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070409
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Indoor Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary System)
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Abstract

To evaluate the cardiovascular impact of traffic-related pollutant exposure on healthy young adults, the research team has collected the primary data of in-cabin exposure to air pollutants and heart rate variability (HRV). Twenty young healthy college students were recruited in Taipei metropolitan area. In addition to electrocardiogram, personal exposure to air pollutants, i.e., particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO), and weather conditions, including temperature and relative humidity (RH), on campus, bus, and mass rapid transit were monitored continuously. The following HRV parameters were evaluated using generalized additive mixed model to adjust for personal and meteorological variables: heart rate (HR), the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (r-MSSD), the standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN), the percentage of successive NN interval differences greater than 50 ms (pNN50), low-frequency power (LF), high-frequency power (HF), total power (TP), and LF/HF. They were assessed to find out the association between in-cabin exposure and HRV parameters. Compared with the HRV parameters measured on campus, the percent changes in r-MSSD, SDNN, pNN50+1, LF, HF, and TP decreased when the participants were in public transits. After adjusting for all locations, 5 min moving averages of PM2.5–10 and PM1 were significantly associated with the increase in the percent changes in HR and SDNN. Additionally, 5 min moving averages of PM2.5–10 exposure were significantly associated with the decrease in the percent change in HF, while it was significantly associated with the increase of the percent change in LF/HF. The reduction of the percent change in HR was also found to be significantly associated with 5 min CO moving averages. To conclude, current analyses have shown that size-fractionated PMs and CO exposure in public transits might lead to significant changes of HRV parameters for healthy young adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; carbon monoxide; heart rate variability; public transit; in-cabin exposure particulate matter; carbon monoxide; heart rate variability; public transit; in-cabin exposure
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Tang, C.-S.; Wu, T.-Y.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chang, T.-Y.; Chuang, H.-C.; Lung, S.-C.C.; Chang, L.-T. Impacts of In-Cabin Exposure to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matters and Carbon Monoxide on Changes in Heart Rate Variability for Healthy Public Transit Commuters. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 409.

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