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Observation and Source Apportionment of Trace Gases, Water-Soluble Ions and Carbonaceous Aerosol During a Haze Episode in Wuhan

1
Wuhan Regional Climate Centre, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Wuhan Central Meteorological Office, Wuhan 430074, China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of the China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
4
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Shanghai 200438, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070397
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 15 July 2019
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Abstract

As the new core region of the haze pollution, the terrain effect of sub-basin and water networks over the Twin-Hu Basin (THB) in the Yangtze River Middle-Reach (YRMR) had great impacts on the variations and distributions of air pollutants. In this study, trace gases (NH3, HNO3, and HCl), water-soluble ions (WSIs), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) were measured in PM2.5 from 9 January to 27 January 2018, in Wuhan using monitoring for aerosols and gases (MARGA) and a semi-continuous OC/EC analyzer (Model RT-4). The characteristics of air pollutants during a haze episode were discussed, and the PM2.5 sources were quantitatively analyzed on haze and non-haze days using the principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) model. The average PM2.5 concentration was 122.61 μg·m−3 on haze days, which was 2.20 times greater than it was on non-haze days. The concentrations of secondary water soluble ions (WSIs) including NO3, SO42−, and NH4+ increased sharply on haze days, which accounted for 91.61% of the total WSIs and were 2.43 times larger than the values on non-haze days. The heterogeneous oxidation reactions of NO2 and SO2 during haze episodes were proven to be the major sources of sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5. On haze days, the concentrations of EC, primary organic carbon (POC), and secondary organic carbon (SOC) were 1.68, 1.69, and 1.34 times larger than those on non-haze days, the CO, HNO3, and NH3 concentrations enhanced and relatively low SO2, O3, and HNO2 levels were observed on haze days. The diurnal variations of different pollutants distinctly varied on haze days. The PM2.5 in Wuhan primarily originated from the secondary formation, combustion, dust, industry, and vehicle exhaust sources. The source contributions of the secondary formation + combustion sources to PM2.5 on haze days were 2.79 times larger than the level on non-haze days. The contribution of the vehicle exhaust + combustion source on haze days were 0.59 times the value on non-haze days. This description is supported by a summary of how pollutant concentrations and patterns vary in the THB compared to the variations in other pollution regions in China, which have been more completely described. View Full-Text
Keywords: Wuhan; haze; MARGA; source apportionment; carbonaceous aerosol Wuhan; haze; MARGA; source apportionment; carbonaceous aerosol
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Gao, Z.; Wang, X.; Shen, L.; Xiang, H.; Wang, H. Observation and Source Apportionment of Trace Gases, Water-Soluble Ions and Carbonaceous Aerosol During a Haze Episode in Wuhan. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 397.

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