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Assessing the Potential Highest Storm Tide Hazard in Taiwan Based on 40-Year Historical Typhoon Surge Hindcasting

1
National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, New Taipei City 23143, Taiwan
2
Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan
3
Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060346
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 22 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Storm Surge Modeling – Capturing the Wind)
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Abstract

Typhoon-induced storm surges are catastrophic disasters in coastal areas worldwide, although typhoon surges are not extremely high in Taiwan. However, the rising water level around an estuary could be a block that obstructs the flow of water away from the estuary and indirectly forms an overflow in the middle or lower reaches of a river if the occurrence of the highest storm surge (HSS) coincides with the highest astronomical tide (HAT). Therefore, assessing the highest storm tide (HST, a combination of the HSS and HAT) hazard level along the coast of Taiwan is particularly important to an early warning of riverine inundation. This study hindcasted the storm surges of 122 historical typhoon events from 1979 to 2018 using a high-resolution, unstructured-grid, surge-wave fully coupled model and a hybrid typhoon wind model. The long-term recording measurements at 28 tide-measuring stations around Taiwan were used to analyze the HAT characteristics. The hindcasted HSSs of each typhoon category (the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan classified typhoon events into nine categories according to the typhoon’s track) were extracted and superposed on the HATs to produce the individual potential HST hazard maps. Each map was classified into six hazard levels (I to VI). Finally, a comprehensive potential HST hazard map was created based on the superposition of the HSSs from 122 typhoon events and HATs. View Full-Text
Keywords: storm surge; astronomical tide; storm tide; typhoon events; hazard map storm surge; astronomical tide; storm tide; typhoon events; hazard map
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yu, Y.-C.; Chen, H.; Shih, H.-J.; Chang, C.-H.; Hsiao, S.-C.; Chen, W.-B.; Chen, Y.-M.; Su, W.-R.; Lin, L.-Y. Assessing the Potential Highest Storm Tide Hazard in Taiwan Based on 40-Year Historical Typhoon Surge Hindcasting. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 346.

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