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Transport Pathways and Potential Source Regions of PM2.5 on the West Coast of Bohai Bay during 2009–2018

1
Department of Environmental Meteorological Assessment, Tianjin Environmental Meteorological Center, No. 100 Qi Xiang Tai Road, Tianjin 300074, China
2
Department of Environmental Meteorological Forecast, Tianjin Environmental Meteorological Center, No. 100 Qi Xiang Tai Road, Tianjin 300074, China
3
Department of Technical Support, Tianjin Meteorological Observation Center, No. 62 Friendship Road, Tianjin 300061, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060345
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Abstract

Mass concentration data for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.50 μm (PM2.5) combined with backward trajectory cluster analysis, potential source contribution function (PSCF), and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) methods were used to investigate the transport pathways and potential source regions of PM2.5 on the west coast of Bohai Bay from 2009 to 2018. Two pathways responsible for the transportation of high PM2.5 levels were identified, namely a southerly pathway and a northwesterly pathway. The southerly pathway represented the major transport pathway of PM2.5 for all seasons. As a regional transport pathway, it had the greatest impact in winter, followed by autumn. The southerly transport pathway passed over the Shandong and Hebei provinces before reaching Tianjin: Air masses were transported within the boundary layer (below 925 hPa), representing a slow-moving air flow. The northwesterly pathway mostly occurred in winter and autumn and passed over desert and semidesert regions in Outer Mongolia, the sand lands of Inner Mongolia, and Hebei. The air masses associated with the northwesterly pathway represented fast-moving airflows responsible for long-range transportation of PM2.5. Two potential source regions that contributed to high PM2.5 loadings on the west coast of Bohai Bay were identified, “southerly source regions” and “northwesterly source regions”. The southerly source regions, with weighted CWT (WCWT) values in winter greater than 140.00 μg/m3, were anthropogenic source regions, including southern Hebei, western Shandong, eastern Henan, northern Anhui, and northern Jiangsu. The northwesterly source regions, with WCWT values in winter of 80.00–140.00 μg/m3, were natural source regions, encompassing central Inner Mongolia and southern Mongolia. In addition, the southerly transport pathway passed though anthropogenic source regions, while the northwesterly transport pathway passed though natural source regions. The impacts of anthropogenic source regions on PM2.5 loadings on the west coast of Bohai Bay were greater than those of natural source regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: backward trajectory; transport pathway; potential source region; PM2.5; west coast of Bohai Bay backward trajectory; transport pathway; potential source region; PM2.5; west coast of Bohai Bay
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hao, T.; Cai, Z.; Chen, S.; Han, S.; Yao, Q.; Fan, W. Transport Pathways and Potential Source Regions of PM2.5 on the West Coast of Bohai Bay during 2009–2018. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 345.

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