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Pollution Events at the High-Altitude Mountain Site Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (2670 m a.s.l.), Germany

1
Professorship of Ecoclimatology, Technische Universität München, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
Climate Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON M3H 5T4, Canada
3
Professorship of Environmental Sensing and Modeling, Technische Universität München, 80333 Munich, Germany
4
Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany
5
German Environment Agency (UBA), 82475 Zugspitze, Germany
6
Physical Geography and Climatology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany
7
Department for Safety and Radiation Protection, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany
8
Heidelberg Center for the Environment, Universität Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060330
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract

Within the CO2 time series measured at the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS), Germany, as part of the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) program, pollution episodes are traced back to local and regional emissions, identified by δ13C(CO2) as well as ratios of CO and CH4 to CO2 mixing ratios. Seven episodes of sudden enhancements in the tropospheric CO2 mixing ratio are identified in the measurements of mixing/isotopic ratios during five winter months from October 2012 to February 2013. The short-term CO2 variations are closely correlated with changes in CO and CH4 mixing ratios, achieving mean values of 6.0 ± 0.2 ppb/ppm for CO/CO2 and 6.0 ± 0.1 ppb/ppm for CH4/CO2. The estimated isotopic signature of CO2 sources (δs) ranges between −35‰ and −24‰, with higher values indicating contributions from coal combustion or wood burning, and lower values being the result of natural gas or gasoline. Moving Keeling plots with site-specific data selection criteria are applied to detect these pollution events. Furthermore, the HYSPLIT trajectory model is utilized to identify the trajectories during periods with CO2 peak events. Short trajectories are found covering Western and Central Europe, while clean air masses flow from the Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio; isotopic CO2; emission ratio; air pollutant transport; Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS); Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW); HYSPLIT model atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio; isotopic CO2; emission ratio; air pollutant transport; Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (UFS); Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW); HYSPLIT model
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Ghasemifard, H.; Vogel, F.R.; Yuan, Y.; Luepke, M.; Chen, J.; Ries, L.; Leuchner, M.; Schunk, C.; Noreen Vardag, S.; Menzel, A. Pollution Events at the High-Altitude Mountain Site Zugspitze-Schneefernerhaus (2670 m a.s.l.), Germany. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 330.

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