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Assessing the Wet Deposition Mechanism of Benzo(a)pyrene in the Atmosphere by MF-DCCA

1
College of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Jishou University, Jishou 416000, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, Aba Teachers University, Wenchuan 623002, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060331
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 14 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Abstract

Based on the 19 year observation from 1998 to 2016 at the Tsuan Wan and Central/Western District monitoring stations in Hong Kong, the aim of this paper was to assess the wet deposition pathway of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on a large time-scale. In order to achieve this goal, multi-fractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) was used to characterize the long-term cross-correlations behaviors and multi-fractal temporal scaling properties between BaP (or PM2.5) and precipitation. The results showed that the relationships between BaP and precipitation (or PM2.5) displayed long-term cross-correlation at the time-scale ranging from one month to one year; no cross-correlation between each other was observed in longer temporal scaling regimes (greater than one year). These results correspond to the atmospheric circulation of the Asian monsoon system and are explained in detail. Similar dynamic processes of the wet deposition of BaP and PM2.5 suggested that the main removal process of atmospheric BaP was rainfall deposits of PM2.5-bound BaP. Furthermore, cross-correlations between BaP (or PM2.5) and precipitation at the long time-scale have a multi-fractal nature and long-term persistent power-law decaying behavior. The temporal evolutions of the multi-fractality were investigated by the approach of a sliding window. Based on the evolution curves of multi-fractal parameters, the wet deposition pathway of PM2.5-bound BaP is discussed. Finally, the contribution degree of wet deposition to PM2.5-bound BaP was derived from the coefficient of determination. It was demonstrated that about 45% and 60% of atmospheric BaP removal can be attributed to the wet deposition pathway of PM2.5-bound BaP for the Tsuan Wan and Central/Western District areas, respectively. The findings in this paper are of great significance for further study on the removal mechanism of atmospheric BaP in the future. The MF-DCCA method provides a novel approach to assessing the geochemical cycle dynamics of BaP. View Full-Text
Keywords: BaP; MF-DCCA; PM2.5; wet deposition BaP; MF-DCCA; PM2.5; wet deposition
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Liu, C.; Shi, K.; Liang, J.; Huang, H. Assessing the Wet Deposition Mechanism of Benzo(a)pyrene in the Atmosphere by MF-DCCA. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 331.

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