Next Article in Journal
Determination of Semivolatile Organic Nitrates in Ambient Atmosphere by Gas Chromatography/Electron Ionization–Mass Spectrometry
Next Article in Special Issue
Numerical Investigations of Atmospheric Rivers and the Rain Shadow over the Santa Clara Valley
Previous Article in Journal
Study on the Construction of Initial Condition Perturbations for the Regional Ensemble Prediction System of North China
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Expanded Investigation of Atmospheric Rivers in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and Their Connection to Landslides
Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Roles of Rainout and Post-Condensation Processes in a Landfalling Atmospheric River with Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Water Vapor

Department of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053, USA
Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(2), 86;
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Rivers)
Atmospheric rivers (ARs), and frontal systems more broadly, tend to exhibit prominent “V” shapes in time series of stable isotopes in precipitation. Despite the magnitude and widespread nature of these “V” shapes, debate persists as to whether these shifts are driven by changes in the degree of rainout, which we determine using the Rayleigh distillation of stable isotopes, or by post-condensation processes such as below-cloud evaporation and equilibrium isotope exchange between hydrometeors and surrounding vapor. Here, we present paired precipitation and water vapor isotope time series records from the 5–7 March 2016, AR in Bodega Bay, CA. The stable isotope composition of surface vapor along with independent meteorological constraints such as temperature and relative humidity reveal that rainout and post-condensation processes dominate during different portions of the event. We find that Rayleigh distillation controls during peak AR conditions (with peak rainout of 55%) while post-condensation processes have their greatest effect during periods of decreased precipitation on the margins of the event. These results and analyses inform critical questions regarding the temporal evolution of AR events and the physical processes that control them at local scales. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric river; stable isotopes; post-condensation processes atmospheric river; stable isotopes; post-condensation processes
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mix, H.T.; Reilly, S.P.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G. Evaluating the Roles of Rainout and Post-Condensation Processes in a Landfalling Atmospheric River with Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Water Vapor. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 86.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop