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Open AccessArticle

Rainfall Contribution of Tropical Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal between 1998 and 2016 using TRMM Satellite Data

Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), Zhuhai 519082, China
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 699;
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 12 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Severe Storm)
In the Bay of Bengal (BoB) area, landfalling Tropical Cyclones (TCs) often produce heavy rainfall that results in coastal flooding and causes enormous loss of life and property. However, the rainfall contribution of TCs in this area has not yet been systematically investigated. To fulfil this objective, firstly, this paper used TC best track data from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to analyze TC activity in this area from 1998 to 2016 (January–December). It showed that on average there were 2.47 TCs per year generated in BoB. In 1998, 1999, 2000, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2013, and 2016 there were 3 or more TCs; while in 2001, 2004, 2011, 2012, and 2015, there was only 1 TC. On a monthly basis, the maximum TC activity was in May, October, and November, and the lowest TC activity was from January to April and in July. Rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) were used to estimate TC rainfall contribution (i.e., how much TC contributed to the total rainfall) on an interannual and monthly scale. The result showed that TCs accounted for around 8% of total overland rainfall during 1998–2016, and with a minimum of 1% in 2011 and a maximum of 34% in 1999. On the monthly basis, TCs’ limited rainfall contribution overland was found from January to April and in July (less than 14%), whereas the maximum TC rainfall contribution overland was in November and December (16%), May (15%), and October (14%). The probability density functions showed that, in a stronger TC, heavier rainfall accounted for more percentages. However, there was little correlation between TC rainfall contribution and TC intensity, because the TC rainfall contribution was also influenced by the TC rainfall area and frequency, and as well the occurrence of other rainfall systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bay of Bengal; rainfall contribution; TRMM; tropical cyclone Bay of Bengal; rainfall contribution; TRMM; tropical cyclone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Uddin, M.J.; Li, Y.; Cheung, K.K.; Nasrin, Z.M.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.; Gao, Z. Rainfall Contribution of Tropical Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal between 1998 and 2016 using TRMM Satellite Data. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 699.

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