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Open AccessArticle

Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, Korea
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John H. Daniels Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 2J5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(11), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10110683
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollutants in Urban Environments)
In this study, we have developed a numerical model based on an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package OpenFOAM, in order to investigate the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons with different geometry configurations. In the new model, the pollutant transport driven by airflow is modeled by the scalar transport equation coupling with the momentum equations for airflow, which are deduced from the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The turbulent flow calculation has been calibrated by various two-equation turbulence closure models to select a practical and efficient turbulence model to reasonably capture the flow pattern. Particularly, an appropriate value of the turbulent Schmidt number has been selected for the pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons, based upon previous studies and careful calibrations against experimental measurements. Eventually, the numerical model has been validated against different well-known laboratory experiments in regard to various aspect ratios (a relationship between the building height and the width of the street canyon), and different building roof shapes (flat, shed, gable and round). The comparisons between the numerical simulations and experimental measurements show a good agreement on the flow pattern and pollutant distribution. This indicates the ability of the new numerical model, which can be applied to investigate the wind flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. View Full-Text
Keywords: street canyon; roof shape; aspect ratio; numerical simulation; turbulent flow; pollution transport street canyon; roof shape; aspect ratio; numerical simulation; turbulent flow; pollution transport
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, V.T.; Nguyen, T.C.; Nguyen, J. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 683.

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