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Open AccessArticle

Fine-Scale Modeling of Individual Exposures to Ambient PM2.5, EC, NOx, and CO for the Coronary Artery Disease and Environmental Exposure (CADEE) Study

1
Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
2
Institute for the Environment, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27517, USA
3
Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
4
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
5
Center for Measurements and Modeling, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
6
Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705 USA
7
Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010065
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Dispersion of Pollutants in Urban Environments)
Air pollution epidemiological studies often use outdoor concentrations from central-site monitors as exposure surrogates, which can induce measurement error. The goal of this study was to improve exposure assessments of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) for a repeated measurements study with 15 individuals with coronary artery disease in central North Carolina called the Coronary Artery Disease and Environmental Exposure (CADEE) study. We developed a fine-scale exposure modeling approach to determine five tiers of individual-level exposure metrics for PM2.5, EC, NOx, and CO using outdoor concentrations, on-road vehicle emissions, weather, home building characteristics, time-locations, and time-activities. We linked an urban-scale air quality model, residential air exchange rate model, building infiltration model, global positioning system (GPS)-based microenvironment model, and accelerometer-based inhaled ventilation model to determine residential outdoor concentrations (Cout_home, Tier 1), residential indoor concentrations (Cin_home, Tier 2), personal outdoor concentrations (Cout_personal, Tier 3), exposures (E, Tier 4), and inhaled doses (D, Tier 5). We applied the fine-scale exposure model to determine daily 24 h average PM2.5, EC, NOx, and CO exposure metrics (Tiers 1–5) for 720 participant-days across the 25 months of the CADEE study. Daily modeled metrics showed considerable temporal and home-to-home variability of Cout_home and Cin_home (Tiers 1–2) and person-to-person variability of Cout_personal, E, and D (Tiers 3–5). Our study demonstrates the ability to apply an urban-scale air quality model with an individual-level exposure model to determine multiple tiers of exposure metrics for an epidemiological study, in support of improving health risk assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; exposure modeling; particulate matter; gaseous pollutants; building infiltration modeling air pollution; exposure modeling; particulate matter; gaseous pollutants; building infiltration modeling
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Breen, M.; Chang, S.Y.; Breen, M.; Xu, Y.; Isakov, V.; Arunachalam, S.; Carraway, M.S.; Devlin, R. Fine-Scale Modeling of Individual Exposures to Ambient PM2.5, EC, NOx, and CO for the Coronary Artery Disease and Environmental Exposure (CADEE) Study. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 65.

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