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Evaluation of Surface Radiative Fluxes over the Tropical Oceans in AMIP Simulations

Meteorology, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901, USA
US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402, USA
International Laboratory on Climate and Environment Change and Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 606;
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
The performance of 20 models from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) was evaluated concerning surface radiation over the tropical oceans (30° S–30° N) from 1979 to 2000. The model ensemble mean of the net surface shortwave radiation (QSW) was underestimated compared to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data by 4 W m−2. On the other hand, net longwave radiation (QLW) was overestimated by 4 W m−2, leading to an underestimation of the net surface radiation (Qrad) by 8 W m−2. The most prominent bias in the Qrad appears to be over regions of low-level clouds in the off-equatorial eastern Pacific, eastern Atlantic, and the south-eastern Indian Ocean. The root means squared error of QLW was larger than that of QSW in 17 out of 20 AMIP models. Overestimation of the total cloud cover and atmospheric humidity contributed to the underestimation of Qrad. In general, models with higher horizontal resolutions performed slightly better than those with coarser horizontal resolutions, although some systematic bias persists in all models and in all seasons, in particular, in regions of low-level clouds for QLW, and high-level clouds for QSW. The ensemble mean performed better than most models, but two high-resolution models (GFDL-HIRAM-C180 and GFDL-HIRAM-C360) outperform the model ensemble. View Full-Text
Keywords: AMIP simulations; surface heat flux; longwave and shortwave radiation AMIP simulations; surface heat flux; longwave and shortwave radiation
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Zhou, X.; Ray, P.; Boykin, K.; Barrett, B.S.; Hsu, P.-C. Evaluation of Surface Radiative Fluxes over the Tropical Oceans in AMIP Simulations. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 606.

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