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Open AccessArticle

Magnitudes of Gravity Wave Pseudomomentum Flux Derived by Combining COSMIC Radio Occultation and ERA-Interim Reanalysis Data

by Xiaohua Xu 1,2, Juan Li 1, Jia Luo 1,3,* and Daocheng Yu 1
1
School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Technology, Wuhan 430079, China
3
Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100598
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 24 September 2019 / Accepted: 27 September 2019 / Published: 2 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Climate Change on Earth's Upper Atmosphere)
In the present work, dry temperature profiles provided by the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) radio occultation (RO) mission and the horizontal wind field provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis are combined for the first time to retrieve the magnitudes of gravity wave (GW) pseudomomentum flux (PMF). The vertical wave parameters, including Brunt–Väisälä frequencies, potential energy (Ep), and vertical wavelengths, are retrieved from RO temperature profiles. The intrinsic frequencies, which are retrieved from the horizontal wind field of ERA-Interim, are combined with the vertical wave parameters to derive the horizontal wavelengths and magnitudes of the PMF of GWs. The feasibility of this new strategy is validated first by comparing the distributions of GW parameters during June, July, and August (JJA) 2006 derived this way with those derived by previous studies. Then the seasonal and interannual variations of the distributions of GW PMF for three altitude ranges, 20–25 km, 25–30 km, and 30–35 km, over the globe during the seven years from June 2006 to May 2013 are presented. It is shown that the three altitude intervals share similar seasonal and interannual distribution patterns of GW PMF, while the magnitudes of GW PMF decrease with increased height and the hot spots of GW activity are the most discernable at the lowest altitude interval of 20–25 km. The maximums of PMF usually occur at latitudes around 60° in the winter hemispheres, where eastward winds prevail, and the second maximums exist over the subtropics of the summer hemispheres, where deep convection occurs. In addition, the influence of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on both GW PMF and zonal winds is discernible over subtropical regions. The present work complements the GW PMF interannual variation patterns derived based on satellite observations by previous studies in terms of the altitude range, latitude coverage, and time period analyzed. View Full-Text
Keywords: COSMIC RO; temperature profiles; ERA-Interim reanalysis; horizontal winds; pseudomomentum flux COSMIC RO; temperature profiles; ERA-Interim reanalysis; horizontal winds; pseudomomentum flux
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Xu, X.; Li, J.; Luo, J.; Yu, D. Magnitudes of Gravity Wave Pseudomomentum Flux Derived by Combining COSMIC Radio Occultation and ERA-Interim Reanalysis Data. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 598.

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