As revealed by the recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America, YFV control measures need urgent rethinking. Over the last decade, most reported outbreaks occurred in, or eventually reached, areas with low vaccination coverage but that are suitable for virus transmission, with an unprecedented risk of expansion to densely populated territories in Africa, South America and Asia. As reflected in the World Health Organization’s initiative launched in 2017, it is high time to strengthen epidemiological surveillance to monitor accurately viral dissemination, and redefine vaccination recommendation areas. Vector-control and immunisation measures need to be adapted and vaccine manufacturing must be reconciled with an increasing demand. We will have to face more yellow fever (YF) cases in the upcoming years. Hence, improving disease management through the development of efficient treatments will prove most beneficial. Undoubtedly, these developments will require in-depth descriptions of YFV biology at molecular, physiological and ecological levels. This second section of a two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at the individual, local and global levels.
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