Accurate duplication and transmission of identical genetic information into offspring cells lies at the heart of a cell division cycle. During the last stage of cellular division, namely mitosis, the fully replicated DNA molecules are condensed into X-shaped chromosomes, followed by a chromosome separation process called sister chromatid disjunction. This process allows for the equal partition of genetic material into two newly born daughter cells. However, emerging evidence has shown that faithful chromosome segregation is challenged by the presence of persistent DNA intertwining structures generated during DNA replication and repair, which manifest as so-called ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) during anaphase. Undoubtedly, failure to disentangle DNA linkages poses a severe threat to mitosis and genome integrity. This review will summarize the possible causes of DNA bridges, particularly sister DNA inter-linkage structures, in an attempt to explain how they may be processed and how they influence faithful chromosome segregation and the maintenance of genome stability.
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