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Replication Checkpoint: Tuning and Coordination of Replication Forks in S Phase
Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 May 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Abstract: Checkpoints monitor critical cell cycle events such as chromosome duplication and segregation. They are highly conserved mechanisms that prevent progression into the next phase of the cell cycle when cells are unable to accomplish the previous event properly. During S phase, cells also provide a surveillance mechanism called the DNA replication checkpoint, which consists of a conserved kinase cascade that is provoked by insults that block or slow down replication forks. The DNA replication checkpoint is crucial for maintaining genome stability, because replication forks become vulnerable to collapse when they encounter obstacles such as nucleotide adducts, nicks, RNA-DNA hybrids, or stable protein-DNA complexes. These can be exogenously induced or can arise from endogenous cellular activity. Here, we summarize the initiation and transduction of the replication checkpoint as well as its targets, which coordinate cell cycle events and DNA replication fork stability.
Keywords: checkpoint; replication; Mec1/ATR; Tel1/ATM; kinases
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Hustedt, N.; Gasser, S.M.; Shimada, K. Replication Checkpoint: Tuning and Coordination of Replication Forks in S Phase. Genes 2013, 4, 388-434.
Hustedt N, Gasser SM, Shimada K. Replication Checkpoint: Tuning and Coordination of Replication Forks in S Phase. Genes. 2013; 4(3):388-434.
Hustedt, Nicole; Gasser, Susan M.; Shimada, Kenji. 2013. "Replication Checkpoint: Tuning and Coordination of Replication Forks in S Phase." Genes 4, no. 3: 388-434.