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Review

The Maze Pathway of Coevolution: A Critical Review over the Leishmania and Its Endosymbiotic History

Research on Leishmaniasis Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro 21040360, Brazil
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Academic Editor: Jose M. Requena
Genes 2021, 12(5), 657; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050657
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 5 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinetoplastid Genomics and Beyond)
The description of the genus Leishmania as the causative agent of leishmaniasis occurred in the modern age. However, evolutionary studies suggest that the origin of Leishmania can be traced back to the Mesozoic era. Subsequently, during its evolutionary process, it achieved worldwide dispersion predating the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent. It is assumed that this parasite evolved from monoxenic Trypanosomatidae. Phylogenetic studies locate dixenous Leishmania in a well-supported clade, in the recently named subfamily Leishmaniinae, which also includes monoxenous trypanosomatids. Virus-like particles have been reported in many species of this family. To date, several Leishmania species have been reported to be infected by Leishmania RNA virus (LRV) and Leishbunyavirus (LBV). Since the first descriptions of LRVs decades ago, differences in their genomic structures have been highlighted, leading to the designation of LRV1 in L. (Viannia) species and LRV2 in L. (Leishmania) species. There are strong indications that viruses that infect Leishmania spp. have the ability to enhance parasitic survival in humans as well as in experimental infections, through highly complex and specialized mechanisms. Phylogenetic analyses of these viruses have shown that their genomic differences correlate with the parasite species infected, suggesting a coevolutionary process. Herein, we will explore what has been described in the literature regarding the relationship between Leishmania and endosymbiotic Leishmania viruses and what is known about this association that could contribute to discussions about the worldwide dispersion of Leishmania. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leishmania; Leishmania viruses; phylogeny; coevolution; endosymbiont protozoan viruses Leishmania; Leishmania viruses; phylogeny; coevolution; endosymbiont protozoan viruses
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cantanhêde, L.M.; Mata-Somarribas, C.; Chourabi, K.; Pereira da Silva, G.; Dias das Chagas, B.; de Oliveira R. Pereira, L.; Côrtes Boité, M.; Cupolillo, E. The Maze Pathway of Coevolution: A Critical Review over the Leishmania and Its Endosymbiotic History. Genes 2021, 12, 657. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050657

AMA Style

Cantanhêde LM, Mata-Somarribas C, Chourabi K, Pereira da Silva G, Dias das Chagas B, de Oliveira R. Pereira L, Côrtes Boité M, Cupolillo E. The Maze Pathway of Coevolution: A Critical Review over the Leishmania and Its Endosymbiotic History. Genes. 2021; 12(5):657. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050657

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cantanhêde, Lilian Motta, Carlos Mata-Somarribas, Khaled Chourabi, Gabriela Pereira da Silva, Bruna Dias das Chagas, Luiza de Oliveira R. Pereira, Mariana Côrtes Boité, and Elisa Cupolillo. 2021. "The Maze Pathway of Coevolution: A Critical Review over the Leishmania and Its Endosymbiotic History" Genes 12, no. 5: 657. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12050657

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