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On the Origin and Evolution of Drosophila New Genes during Spermatogenesis
Article

New Genes in the Drosophila Y Chromosome: Lessons from D. willistoni

Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-971, Brazil
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Academic Editors: Manyuan Long and Esther Betran
Genes 2021, 12(11), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111815
Received: 4 October 2021 / Revised: 8 November 2021 / Accepted: 11 November 2021 / Published: 18 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Do New Genes Originate and Evolve?)
Y chromosomes play important roles in sex determination and male fertility. In several groups (e.g., mammals) there is strong evidence that they evolved through gene loss from a common X-Y ancestor, but in Drosophila the acquisition of new genes plays a major role. This conclusion came mostly from studies in two species. Here we report the identification of the 22 Y-linked genes in D. willistoni. They all fit the previously observed pattern of autosomal or X-linked testis-specific genes that duplicated to the Y. The ratio of gene gains to gene losses is ~25 in D. willistoni, confirming the prominent role of gene gains in the evolution of Drosophila Y chromosomes. We also found four large segmental duplications (ranging from 62 kb to 303 kb) from autosomal regions to the Y, containing ~58 genes. All but four of these duplicated genes became pseudogenes in the Y or disappeared. In the GK20609 gene the Y-linked copy remained functional, whereas its original autosomal copy degenerated, demonstrating how autosomal genes are transferred to the Y chromosome. Since the segmental duplication that carried GK20609 contained six other testis-specific genes, it seems that chance plays a significant role in the acquisition of new genes by the Drosophila Y chromosome. View Full-Text
Keywords: Drosophila willistoni; Y chromosome; new genes; segmental duplication; gene duplication Drosophila willistoni; Y chromosome; new genes; segmental duplication; gene duplication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ricchio, J.; Uno, F.; Carvalho, A.B. New Genes in the Drosophila Y Chromosome: Lessons from D. willistoni. Genes 2021, 12, 1815. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111815

AMA Style

Ricchio J, Uno F, Carvalho AB. New Genes in the Drosophila Y Chromosome: Lessons from D. willistoni. Genes. 2021; 12(11):1815. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111815

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ricchio, João, Fabiana Uno, and A. B. Carvalho. 2021. "New Genes in the Drosophila Y Chromosome: Lessons from D. willistoni" Genes 12, no. 11: 1815. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111815

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