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Article

On the Origin and Evolution of Drosophila New Genes during Spermatogenesis

by 1, 1 and 1,2,3,*
1
The MOE Key Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Cancer Molecular Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Department of Neuroscience and Developmental Biology, University of Vienna, 1030 Vienna, Austria
3
Center for Reproductive Medicine, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310052, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Manyuan Long, Esther Betran and Nico M. Van Straalen
Genes 2021, 12(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111796
Received: 12 September 2021 / Revised: 9 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How Do New Genes Originate and Evolve?)
The origin of functional new genes is a basic biological process that has significant contribution to organismal diversity. Previous studies in both Drosophila and mammals showed that new genes tend to be expressed in testes and avoid the X chromosome, presumably because of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Here, we analyze the published single-cell transcriptome data of Drosophila adult testis and find an enrichment of male germline mitotic genes, but an underrepresentation of meiotic genes on the X chromosome. This can be attributed to an excess of autosomal meiotic genes that were derived from their X-linked mitotic progenitors, which provides direct cell-level evidence for MSCI in Drosophila. We reveal that new genes, particularly those produced by retrotransposition, tend to exhibit an expression shift toward late spermatogenesis compared with their parental copies, probably due to the more intensive sperm competition or sexual conflict. Our results dissect the complex factors including age, the origination mechanisms and the chromosomal locations that influence the new gene origination and evolution in testes, and identify new gene cases that show divergent cell-level expression patterns from their progenitors for future functional studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: new genes; single-cell RNA-seq; meiotic sex chromosome inactivation; out of the X new genes; single-cell RNA-seq; meiotic sex chromosome inactivation; out of the X
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MDPI and ACS Style

Su, Q.; He, H.; Zhou, Q. On the Origin and Evolution of Drosophila New Genes during Spermatogenesis. Genes 2021, 12, 1796. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111796

AMA Style

Su Q, He H, Zhou Q. On the Origin and Evolution of Drosophila New Genes during Spermatogenesis. Genes. 2021; 12(11):1796. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111796

Chicago/Turabian Style

Su, Qianwei, Huangyi He, and Qi Zhou. 2021. "On the Origin and Evolution of Drosophila New Genes during Spermatogenesis" Genes 12, no. 11: 1796. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111796

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