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Article

Polyamines Involved in Regulating Self-Incompatibility in Apple

1
College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
2
Institute of Pomology, Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yingkou 115009, China
3
Horticultural Branch, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mathilde Causse
Genes 2021, 12(11), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111797
Received: 14 October 2021 / Revised: 8 November 2021 / Accepted: 9 November 2021 / Published: 15 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Horticultural Genetics and Breeding)
Apple exhibits typical gametophytic self-incompatibility, in which self-S-RNase can arrest pollen tube growth, leading to failure of fertilization. To date, there have been few studies on how to resist the toxicity of self-S-RNase. In this study, pollen tube polyamines were found to respond to self-S-RNase and help pollen tubes defend against self-S-RNase. In particular, the contents of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the pollen tube treated with self-S-RNase were substantially lower than those treated with non-self-S-RNase. Further analysis of gene expression of key enzymes in the synthesis and degradation pathways of polyamines found that the expression of DIAMINE OXIDASE 4 (MdDAO4) as well as several polyamine oxidases such as POLYAMINE OXIDASES 3 (MdPAO3), POLYAMINE OXIDASES 4 (MdPAO4), and POLYAMINE OXIDASES 6 (MdPAO6) were significantly up-regulated under self-S-RNase treatment, resulting in the reduction of polyamines. Silencing MdPAO6 in pollen tubes alleviates the inhibitory effect of self-S-RNase on pollen tube growth. In addition, exogenous polyamines also enhance pollen tube resistance to self-S-RNase. Transcriptome sequencing data found that polyamines may communicate with S-RNase through the calcium signal pathway, thereby regulating the growth of the pollen tubes. To summarize, our results suggested that polyamines responded to the self-incompatibility reaction and could enhance pollen tube tolerance to S-RNase, thus providing a potential way to break self-incompatibility in apple. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyamines; apple; self-incompatibility; S-RNase; pollen tube polyamines; apple; self-incompatibility; S-RNase; pollen tube
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, J.; Wang, B.; Fan, W.; Fan, S.; Xu, Y.; Liu, C.; Lv, T.; Liu, W.; Wu, L.; Xian, L.; Li, T. Polyamines Involved in Regulating Self-Incompatibility in Apple. Genes 2021, 12, 1797. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111797

AMA Style

Yu J, Wang B, Fan W, Fan S, Xu Y, Liu C, Lv T, Liu W, Wu L, Xian L, Li T. Polyamines Involved in Regulating Self-Incompatibility in Apple. Genes. 2021; 12(11):1797. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111797

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yu, Jie, Baoan Wang, Wenqi Fan, Songbo Fan, Ya Xu, Chunsheng Liu, Tianxing Lv, Wanda Liu, Ling Wu, Linfeng Xian, and Tianzhong Li. 2021. "Polyamines Involved in Regulating Self-Incompatibility in Apple" Genes 12, no. 11: 1797. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12111797

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